Development of the EQ-5D-Y: a child-friendly version of the EQ-5D
To develop a self-report version of the EQ-5D for younger respondents, named the EQ-5D-Y (Youth); to test its comprehensibility for children and adolescents and to compare results obtained using the standard adult EQ-5D and the EQ-5D-Y.
An international task force revised the content of EQ-5D and wording to ensure relevance and clarity for young respondents. Children’s and adolescents’ understanding of the EQ-5D-Y was tested in cognitive interviews after the instrument was translated into German, Italian, Spanish and Swedish. Differences between the EQ-5D and the EQ-5D-Y regarding frequencies of reported problems were investigated in Germany, Spain and South Africa.
The content of the EQ-5D dimensions proved to be appropriate for the measurement of HRQOL in young respondents. The wording of the questionnaire had to be adapted which led to small changes in the meaning of some items and answer options. The adapted EQ-5D-Y was satisfactorily understood by children and adolescents in different countries. It was better accepted and proved more feasible than the EQ-5D. The administration of the EQ-5D and of the EQ-5D-Y causes differences in frequencies of reported problems.
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- 1. Department of Psychosomatics in Children and Adolescents, Research Unit Child Public Health, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany
- 2. Health Economics & Outcomes Research, IMS Health, Doctor Ferran 25-27, 2, 08034, Barcelona, Spain
- 3. Department of Prenatal Medicine and Obstetrics (Location Woudenstein, L3-060), Erasmus Medical Centre, Institute of Health Policy & Management, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
- 4. Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels väg 15a, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden
- 5. Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels väg 15a, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden
- 6. Department of Statistics, University of Bologna, Via delle Belle Arti 41, 40126, Bologna, Italy
- 7. Office of Health Economics & Senior Associate, King’s Fund, 12 Whitehall, London, SW1A2DY, UK
- 8. The Red Cross University College, Box 55676, 102 15, Stockholm, Sweden
- 9. Department for Health Economics and Health Care Management, University of Bielefeld, School of Public Health, P.O. Box 10 01 31, 33501, Bielefeld, Germany
- 10. University of Extremadura, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Avda Universidad, 10071, Caceres, Spain
- 11. CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona, Spain
- 12. Health Services Research Unit, IMIM-Hospital del Mar, Unitat de Recerca en Serveis Sanitaris, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain
- 13. Division of Physiotherapy, University of Cape Town, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Anzio Road Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa
- 14. Centre for Health Economics, Alcuin College, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, UK
- 15. Department of Clinical Medicine and Prevention, Research Centre On Public Health, University of Milano – Bicocca, Villa Serena, Via Pergolesi 33, 20052, Monza, Italy