Factors Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening of Women During Pregnancy, Labor and Delivery, United States, 2005–2006
The purpose of this study was to estimate prenatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening rates prior to and on admission to labor and delivery (L&D) and to examine factors associated with HIV screening, including hospital policies, with a comparison of HIV and hepatitis B prenatal screening practices and hospital policies. In March 2006, a survey of hospitals (n = 190) and review of paired maternal and infant medical records (n = 4,762) were conducted in 50 US states, DC, and Puerto Rico. Data from the survey and medical record review were analyzed using SAS software v9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). HIV testing before delivery occurred among 3,438 women (73.9 %); African American and Hispanic women were more likely to be tested than white women [aOR 2.22, 95 % CI (1.6–3.1) and aOR 1.55, 95 % CI (1.1–2.2), respectively]. Among women without previous HIV testing, 138 (16.6 %) were tested after admission to labor and delivery. Policies to test women with undocumented HIV status in at delivery were present in 65 (36.3 %) hospitals. HIV testing after admission to L&D was more likely in hospitals with policies to test women with undocumented HIV status [aOR 5.91, 95 % CI (2.0–17.8)]. Overall, policies and screening practices for HIV were consistently less prevalent than those for hepatitis B. Many women are not being routinely screened for HIV before or at delivery. Women with unknown HIV status were more likely to be tested in L&D in hospitals with testing policies.