, Volume 46, Issue 4, pp 855-874,
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Review of the anatase to rutile phase transformation

Abstract

Titanium dioxide, TiO2, is an important photocatalytic material that exists as two main polymorphs, anatase and rutile. The presence of either or both of these phases impacts on the photocatalytic performance of the material. The present work reviews the anatase to rutile phase transformation. The synthesis and properties of anatase and rutile are examined, followed by a discussion of the thermodynamics of the phase transformation and the factors affecting its observation. A comprehensive analysis of the reported effects of dopants on the anatase to rutile phase transformation and the mechanisms by which these effects are brought about is presented in this review, yielding a plot of the cationic radius versus the valence characterised by a distinct boundary between inhibitors and promoters of the phase transformation. Further, the likely effects of dopant elements, including those for which experimental data are unavailable, on the phase transformation are deduced and presented on the basis of this analysis.