Journal of International Entrepreneurship

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 95-116

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Antecedents and consequences of effectuation and causation in the international new venture creation process

  • Rainer HarmsAffiliated withNIKOS, University of Twente Email author 
  • , Holger SchieleAffiliated withOOHR, University of Twente


The selection of the entry mode in an international market is of key importance for the venture. A process-based perspective on entry mode selection can add to the International Business and International Entrepreneurship literature. Framing the international market entry as an entrepreneurial process, this paper analyzes the antecedents and consequences of causation and effectuation in the entry mode selection. For the analysis, regression-based techniques were used on a sample of 65 gazelles. The results indicate that experienced entrepreneurs tend to apply effectuation rather than causation, while uncertainty does not have a systematic influence. Entrepreneurs using causation-based international new venture creation processes tend to engage in export-type entry modes, while effectuation-based international new venture creation processes do not predetermine the entry mode.


Causation Effectuation Entry mode selection Gazelles International entrepreneurship Internationalization