The Hopelessness Theory of Depression: A Prospective Multi-Wave Test of the Vulnerability-Stress Hypothesis
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The hopelessness theory of depression’s (Abramson et al. (1989). Psychological Review, 96, 358–372) cognitive vulnerability-stress hypothesis was tested using data from a 6-week longitudinal study of university undergraduates. Participants completed measures of negative inferential style, negative events, and depressive symptoms at the initial assessment and measures of negative events and depressive symptoms each week for the next 6 weeks. Supporting the vulnerability-stress hypothesis, results of hierarchical linear modeling indicated that inferential styles moderated the relation between weekly negative events and weekly variations in depressive symptom levels. Specifically, participants with negative inferential styles who also experienced high levels of negative events in a given week reported the greatest increases in depressive symptoms during that week. Although we also found that depressive symptoms prospectively predicted changes in negative events from week to week, inferential styles did not moderate this relation.
- Abela, J. R. Z., Brozina, K., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). A test of the integration of the activation hypothesis and the diathesis-stress component of the hopelessness theory of depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 43, 111–128.
- Abramson, L. Y., Alloy, L. B., Hankin, B. L., Haeffel, G. J., MacCoon, D. G., & Gibb, B. E. (2002). Cognitive vulnerability-stress models of depression in a self-regulatory and psychobiological context. In I. H. Gotlib & C. L. Hammen (Eds.), Handbook of depression (pp. 268–294). New York: Guilford.
- Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358–372. CrossRef
- Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
- Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Hogan, M. E., Whitehouse, W. G., Rose, D. T., Robinson, M. S., Kim, R. S., & Lapkin, J. B. (2000). The Temple-Wisconsin cognitive vulnerability to depression project: Lifetime history of axis I psychopathology in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 403–418. CrossRef
- Beck, A. T. (1983). Cognitive therapy of depression: New perspectives. In P. J. Clayton & J. E. Barrett (Eds.), Treatment of depression: Old controversies and new approaches (pp. 265–290). New York: Raven.
- Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck depression inventory manual. (2nd ed.) San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.
- Clark, D. A., Beck, A. T., & Alford, B. A. (1999). Scientific foundations of cognitive theory and therapy of depression. New York: Wiley.
- Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. (3rd ed.). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- Daley, S. E., Hammen, C., Burge, D., Davila, J., Paley, B., Lindberg, N., & Herzberg, D. S. (1997). Predictors of the generation of episodic stress: A longitudinal study of late adolescent women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 251–259. CrossRef
- Davila, J., Hammen, C., Burge, D., Paley, B., & Daley, S. E. (1995). Poor interpersonal problem solving as a mechanism of stress generation among adolescent women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 592–600. CrossRef
- DeLongis, A., Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1988). The impact of daily stress on health and mood: Psychological and social resources as mediators. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 486–495. CrossRef
- Gibb, B. E., & Coles, M. E. (2005). Cognitive vulnerability-stress models of psychopathology: A developmental perspective. In B. L. Hankin & J. R. Z. Abela (Eds.), Development of psychopathology: A vulnerability-stress perspective (pp. 104–135). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
- Hammen, C. (1991). Generation of stress in the course of unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 555–561. CrossRef
- Hammen, C. (1992). Life events and depression: The plot thickens. American Journal of Community Psychology, 20, 179–193. CrossRef
- Hammen, C. (1999). The emergence of an interpersonal approach to depression. In T. Joiner & J. C. Coyne (Eds.), The interactional nature of depression: Advances in interpersonal approaches (pp. 21–35). Washington: American Psychological Association.
- Hankin, B. L., & Abramson, L. Y. (2001). Development of gender differences in depression: An elaborated cognitive vulnerability-transactional stress theory. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 773–796. CrossRef
- Hankin, B. L., & Abramson, L. Y. (2002). Measuring cognitive vulnerability to depression in adolescence: Reliability, validity, and gender differences. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 491–504. CrossRef
- Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Miller, N., & Haeffel, G. J. (2004). Cognitive vulnerability-stress theories of depression: Examining affective specificity in the prediction of depression versus anxiety in three prospective studies. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28, 309–345. CrossRef
- Hankin, B. L., Fraley, R. C., & Abela, J. R. Z. (2005). Daily depression and cognitions about stress: Evidence for a traitlike depressogenic cognitive style and the prediction of depressive symptoms in a prospective daily diary study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 673–685. CrossRef
- Joiner, T. E. Jr., Wingate, L. R., & Otamendi, A. (2005). An interpersonal addendum to the hopelessness theory of depression: Hopelessness as a stress and depression generator. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24, 649–664. CrossRef
- Kreft, I., & De Leeuw, J. (1998). Introducing multilevel modeling. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
- Little, R. J. A., & Rubin, D. B. (1987). Statistical analysis with missing data. New York: Wiley.
- Nelson, D. R., Hammen, C., Daley, S. E., Burge, D., & Davila, J. (2001). Sociotropic and autonomous personality styles: Contributions to chronic life stress. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25, 61–76. CrossRef
- Peterson, C. R., Semmel, A., von Baeyer, C., Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1982). The Attributional Style Questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 287–300. CrossRef
- Potthoff, J. G., Holahan, C. J., & Joiner, T. E. Jr. (1995). Reassurance seeking, stress generation, and depressive symptoms: An integrative model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 664–670. CrossRef
- Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
- Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S., Cheong, Y. F., & Congdon, R. (2004). HLM 6: Hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling. Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International Inc.
- Wingate, L. R., & Joiner, T. E. (2004). Depression-related stress generation: A longitudinal study of black adolescents. Behavior Therapy, 35, 247–261. CrossRef
- The Hopelessness Theory of Depression: A Prospective Multi-Wave Test of the Vulnerability-Stress Hypothesis
Cognitive Therapy and Research
Volume 30, Issue 6 , pp 763-772
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Cognitive vulnerability-stress
- Attributional style
- Inferential style