, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 529–546

Sap flow measurements with some thermodynamic methods, flow integration within trees and scaling up from sample trees to entire forest stands

Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00468-004-0339-6

Cite this article as:
Čermák, J., Kučera, J. & Nadezhdina, N. Trees (2004) 18: 529. doi:10.1007/s00468-004-0339-6


Sap flow measurement techniques and evaluation of data are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the trunk segment heat balance (THB) and heat field deformation (HFD) methods based on 30 years experience. Further elaboration of sap flow data is discussed in terms of integrating flow for whole stems from individual measuring points, considering variation of radial patterns in sapwood and variation around stems. Scaling up of data from sets of sample trees to entire forest stands based on widely available biometric data (partially on remote sensing images) is described and evaluated with a discussion of the magnitude of errors, the routine procedure applicable in any forest stand and practical examples.


Evaluation of methodsHeat balanceHeat field deformationRadial pattern of flowFlow visualization

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Forest EcologyMendel University of Agriculture and ForestryBrnoCzech Republic
  2. 2.Environmental Measuring SystemsBrnoCzech Republic