European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 52, Issue 4, pp 1315–1325

Krill oil versus fish oil in modulation of inflammation and lipid metabolism in mice transgenic for TNF-α

Authors

    • Institute of MedicineUniversity of Bergen
  • Bodil Bjørndal
    • Institute of MedicineUniversity of Bergen
  • Pavol Bohov
    • Institute of MedicineUniversity of Bergen
  • Trond Brattelid
    • National Institute of Fisheries, NIFES
  • Asbjørn Svardal
    • Institute of MedicineUniversity of Bergen
  • Rolf Kristian Berge
    • Institute of MedicineUniversity of Bergen
    • Department of Heart DiseaseHaukeland University Hospital
Original Contribution

DOI: 10.1007/s00394-012-0441-2

Cite this article as:
Vigerust, N.F., Bjørndal, B., Bohov, P. et al. Eur J Nutr (2013) 52: 1315. doi:10.1007/s00394-012-0441-2

Abstract

Purpose

Biological effects of marine oils, fish oil (FO) and krill oil (KO), are mostly attributed to the high content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The study was aimed to investigate the influence of FO and KO on lipid homeostasis and inflammation in an animal model of persistent low-grade exposure to human tumor necrosis factor α (hTNF-α) and to evaluate whether these effects depend on the structural forms of EPA and DHA [triacylglycerols (TAG) vs. phospholipids].

Methods

Male C57BL/6 hTNF-α mice were fed for 6 weeks a high-fat control diet (24.50 % total fats, w/w) or high-fat diets containing either FO or KO at similar doses of n-3 PUFAs (EPA: 5.23 vs. 5.39 wt%, DHA: 2.82 vs. 2.36 wt% of total fatty acids).

Results

We found that KO, containing bioactive n-3 PUFAs in the form of phospholipids, was capable of modulating lipid metabolism by lowering plasma levels of TAG and cholesterol and stimulating the mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, as well as improving the overall carnitine turnover. Though the administration of FO was not as effective as KO in the lowering of plasma TAG, FO significantly improved the levels of all cholesterol classes in plasma. Except from the increase in the levels of IL-17 in FO-fed mice and a trend to decrease in MCP-1 levels in KO-fed animals, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were not substantially different between treatment groups.

Conclusion

Our findings demonstrate that FO and KO are comparable dietary sources of n-3 PUFAs. However, when quantitatively similar doses of n-3 PUFAs are administered, KO seems to have a greater potential to promote lipid catabolism. The effect of dietary oils on the levels of inflammatory markers in hTNF-α transgenic mice fed a high-fat diet needs further investigations.

Keywords

Fish oilKrill oiln-3 PUFAInflammationLipidsHigh-fat diet

Abbreviations

ACOX1

Acyl-CoA oxidase 1

CPT

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid

FFA

Free fatty acids

GPAT

Glycerol phosphate acyltransferase

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

MUFA

Monounsaturated fatty acid

PPAR

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

SFA

Saturated fatty acid

TAG

Triacylglycerol

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor α

VLDL

Very low-density lipoprotein

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012