Climate Dynamics

, Volume 38, Issue 7, pp 1313–1324

Effects of El Niño Modoki on winter precipitation in Korea

Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00382-011-1114-1

Cite this article as:
Kim, DW., Choi, KS. & Byun, HR. Clim Dyn (2012) 38: 1313. doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1114-1

Abstract

This study compares the impacts of El Niño Modoki and El Niño on precipitation over Korea during the boreal winters from 1954 to 2009. Precipitation in Korea tends to be equal to or greater than the normal level during an El Niño Modoki winter, whereas there is no significant change during an El Niño winter. Greater than normal precipitation during El Niño Modoki was also found over the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China and much of southern Japan. The latitudes of these regions are 5–10° further north than in southern China, where precipitation increases during El Niño. The following two anomalous atmospheric circulations were found to be causes that led to different precipitation distributions over East Asia. First, an atmospheric wave train in the lower troposphere, which propagated from the central tropical Pacific (cyclonic) through the southern Philippine Sea (anticyclonic) to East Asia (cyclonic), reached the southern China and northern Philippine Sea during El Niño, whereas it reached Korea and southern Japan during El Niño Modoki. Second, an anomalous local meridional circulation, which consists of air sinking in the tropics, flowing poleward in the lower troposphere, and rising in the subtropics, developed between the southern Philippine Sea and northern Philippine Sea during El Niño. During El Niño Modoki, however, this circulation expanded further to the north and was formed between the southern Philippine Sea and regions of Korea and southern Japan.

Keywords

El Niño ModokiEl NiñoWinter precipitationWinter teleconnectionsAnomalous local meridional circulationAtmospheric wave train

Supplementary material

382_2011_1114_MOESM1_ESM.eps (2.2 mb)
Fig. S1. SSTA (°C) for the (a) El Niño, and (b) El Niño Modoki winters (JFM). (EPS 2205 kb)
382_2011_1114_MOESM2_ESM.eps (5.8 mb)
Fig. S2. CRU precipitation anomalies for the (a) El Niño, and (b) El Niño Modoki winters (JFM). (EPS 5900 kb)
382_2011_1114_MOESM3_ESM.eps (3.2 mb)
Fig. S3. Latitude-height cross-section of vertical velocity and meridional wind speed anomalies along 120–140°E for the (a) El Niño (EPS 3262 kb)
382_2011_1114_MOESM4_ESM.eps (3.3 mb)
Fig. S3. Latitude-height cross-section of vertical velocity and meridional wind speed anomalies along 120–140°E for the (b) El Niño Modoki winters (JFM).(EPS 3328 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of Meteorological ResearchKorea Meteorological AdministrationSeoulKorea
  2. 2.National Typhoon CenterKorea Meteorological AdministrationJejuKorea
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Atmospheric SciencesPukyong National UniversityNam-gu, BusanRepublic of Korea