Recent advances in analytical and bioanalysis applications of noble metal nanorods
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- Mannelli, I. & Marco, MP. Anal Bioanal Chem (2010) 398: 2451. doi:10.1007/s00216-010-3937-8
In the last decade the use of anisotropic nanoparticles in analytical and bioanalytical applications has increased substantially. In particular, noble metal nanorods have unique optical properties that have attracted the interest of many research groups. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) generated by interaction of light at a specific wavelength with noble metal nanoparticles was found to depend on particle size and shape and on the constituting material and the surrounding dielectric solution. Because of their anisotropic shape, nanorods are characterized by two LSPR peaks: the transverse, fixed at approximately 530 nm, and the longitudinal, which is in the visible–near infra-red region of the spectrum and varies with nanorod aspect ratio. The intense surface plasmon band enables nanorods to absorb and scatter light in the visible and near infra-red regions, and fluorescence and two-photon induced luminescence are also observed. These optical properties, with the reactivity towards binding events that induce changes in the refractive index of the surrounding solution, make nanorods a useful tool for tracking binding events in different applications, for example assembly, biosensing, in-vivo targeting and imaging, and single-molecule detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. This review presents the promising strategies proposed for functionalizing gold nanorods and their successful use in a variety of analytical and biomedical applications.