Original Article

Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 87, Issue 1, pp 43-55

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Algorithms for geodesics


Algorithms for the computation of geodesics on an ellipsoid of revolution are given. These provide accurate, robust, and fast solutions to the direct and inverse geodesic problems and they allow differential and integral properties of geodesics to be computed.


Geometrical geodesy Geodesics Polygonal areas Gnomonic projection Numerical methods