, Volume 51, Issue 9, pp 1680-1688,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 17 Jul 2008

Molecular composition of the peri-islet basement membrane in NOD mice: a barrier against destructive insulitis

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis

This study examined whether the capsule which encases islets of Langerhans in the NOD mouse pancreas represents a specialised extracellular matrix (ECM) or basement membrane that protects islets from autoimmune attack.

Methods

Immunofluorescence microscopy using a panel of antibodies to collagens type IV, laminins, nidogens and perlecan was performed to localise matrix components in NOD mouse pancreas before diabetes onset, at onset of diabetes and after clinical diabetes was established (2–8.5 weeks post-onset).

Results

Perlecan, a heparan sulphate proteoglycan that is characteristic of basement membranes and has not previously been investigated in islets, was localised in the peri-islet capsule and surrounding intra-islet capillaries. Other components present in the peri-islet capsule included laminin chains α2, β1 and γ1, collagen type IV α1 and α2, and nidogen 1 and 2. Collagen type IV α3–α6 were not detected. These findings confirm that the peri-islet capsule represents a specialised ECM or conventional basement membrane. The islet basement membrane was destroyed in islets where intra-islet infiltration of leucocytes marked the progression from non-destructive to destructive insulitis. No changes in basement membrane composition were observed before leucocyte infiltration.

Conclusions/interpretation

These findings suggest that the islet basement membrane functions as a physical barrier to leucocyte migration into islets and that degradation of the islet basement membrane marks the onset of destructive autoimmune insulitis and diabetes development in NOD mice. The components of the islet basement membrane that we identified predict that specialised degradative enzymes are likely to function in autoimmune islet damage.