Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 173–201

Self-regulating academic learning and achievement: The emergence of a social cognitive perspective

  • Barry J. Zimmerman

DOI: 10.1007/BF01322178

Cite this article as:
Zimmerman, B.J. Educ Psychol Rev (1990) 2: 173. doi:10.1007/BF01322178


For three decades, social cognitive researchers have studied children's development of self-regulation as an achievement of socialization processes. I recount historically the emergence of a social cognitive perspective on self-regulation and identify its unique features. Two essential characteristics of students' self-regulated academic learning have been identified — their use of strategies and perceptions of self-efficacy. A social cognitive model of academic self-regulated learning is proposed that integrates triadic determinants of self-regulated learning (personal, behavioral, and environmental) on the basis of a strategic control loop. When students monitor their responding and attribute outcomes to their strategies, their learning becomes self-regulated, and they display increased self-efficacy, greater intrinsic motivation, and higher academic achievement.

Key words

self-regulationachievementsocial cognition

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry J. Zimmerman
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School and University CenterCity University of New YorkNew York