Detrended correspondence analysis: An improved ordination technique
 M. O. Hill,
 H. G. Gauch Jr.
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Summary
Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) is an improvement upon the reciprocal averaging (RA) ordination technique. RA has two main faults: the second axis is often an ‘arch’ or ‘horseshoe’ distortion of the first axis, and distances in the ordination space do not have a consistent meaning in terms of compositional change (in particular, distances at the ends of the first RA axis are compressed relative to the middle). DCA corrects these two faults. Tests with simulated and field data show DCA superior to RA and to nonmetric multidimensional sealing in giving clear, interpretable results. DCA has several advantages. (a) Its performance is the best of the ordination techniques tested, and both species and sample ordinations are produced simultaneously. (b) The axes are scaled in standard deviation units with a definite meaning, (c) As implemented in a FORTRAN program called DECORANA, computing time rises only linearly with the amount of data analyzed, and only positive entries in the data matrix are stored in memory, so very large data sets present no difficulty. However, DCA has limitations, making it best to remove extreme outliers and discontinuities prior to analysis. DCA consistently gives the most interpretable ordination results, but as always the interpretation of results remains a matter of ecological insight and is improved by field experience and by integration of supplementary environmental data for the vegetation sample sites.
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 Title
 Detrended correspondence analysis: An improved ordination technique
 Journal

Vegetatio
Volume 42, Issue 13 , pp 4758
 Cover Date
 19801001
 DOI
 10.1007/BF00048870
 Print ISSN
 00423106
 Online ISSN
 15735052
 Publisher
 Kluwer Academic Publishers
 Additional Links
 Topics
 Keywords

 Correspondence analysis
 Multivariate technique
 Nonmetric multidimensional scaling
 Ordination
 Reeiprocal averaging
 Authors

 M. O. Hill ^{(1)}
 H. G. Gauch Jr. ^{(1)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. Section of Ecology and Systematics, Cornell University, 14850, Ithaca, New York, USA