Reference work entry


  • Capital: Ashgabat

  • Population estimate, 2015: 5.37 m.

  • GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 13,066

  • HDI/world rank, 2014: 0.688/109

  • Internet domain extension: .tm

Civil Aviation

Turkmenistan Airlines, founded in 1992, is the flag carrier. In 2005 scheduled airline traffic of Turkmenistan-based carriers flew 9.5 m. km, carrying 1,899,800 passengers.


The summers are warm to hot but the humidity is relatively low. The winters are cold but generally dry and sunny over most of the country. Ashgabat, Jan. −1 °C, July 25 °C. Annual rainfall 375 mm.

Constitution and Government

A new constitution was adopted on 26 Sept. 2008. It provided for a head of state who is elected by popular vote for a 5 year term and abolished the 2,500-member Khalk Maslakhaty (People’s Council), formerly the highest representative body. The Majlis(Assembly), which now serves as the sole legislative body, was increased from 65 to 125 members. The constitution also allows for a multiparty system. At a...

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