The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

2018 Edition
| Editors: Macmillan Publishers Ltd

Population Health, Economic Implications of

  • David Canning
  • David E. Bloom
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-349-95189-5_2661

Abstract

Population health is not only a consequence but also a cause of a high level of income. Healthier people are more productive in work. Healthy children have better school attendance and cognitive development, while longer prospective working lifespans encourage investments in education. Longer lifespans can also increase saving and wealth accumulation as an extended retirement becomes more likely. The beneficial effects of population health can be seen both at the individual and macroeconomic levels, while the continuing high burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa poses a substantial challenge to its economic development.

Keywords

Age structure Black Death Cognitive ability Demographic transition Dependency Economic growth Education Family planning Fertility Foreign direct investment Health Health policy HIV/AIDS Human capital Income Instrumental variables Investment Labour productivity Labour supply Learning Life expectancy Morbidity Mortality Population growth Population health Retirement Savings School attendance Social security Value of life Well-being 

JEL Classification

I1 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. Acemoglu, D., S. Johnson, and J. Robinson. 2003. Disease and development in historical perspective. Journal of the European Economic Association, Papers and Proceedings 1: 397–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, P., M.D. Hurd, D.L. McFadden, A. Merrill, and T. Ribeiro. 2003. Healthy, wealthy, and wise? Tests for direct causal paths between health and socioeconomic status. Journal of Econometrics 112: 3–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alsan, M., D.E. Bloom, and D. Canning. 2006. The effect of population health on foreign direct investment inflows to low- and middle-income countries. World Development 34: 613–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barker, D.J.P. 1992. The fetal and infant origins of adult disease. London: BMJ Books.Google Scholar
  5. Basta, S., K. Soekirman, and N. Scrimshaw. 1979. Iron deficiency anemia and productivity of adult males in Indonesia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 32: 916–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker, G.S., T.J. Philipson, and R.R. Soares. 2005. The quantity of life and the evolution of world inequality. American Economic Review 95: 277–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Behrman, J.R., and M.R. Rosenzweig. 2004. The returns to birthweight. Review of Economics and Statistics 86: 586–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bell, C., S. Devarajan, and H. Gersbach. 2004. Thinking about the long-run economic costs of AIDS. In The Macroeconomics of HIV/AIDS, ed. M. Haacker. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
  9. Bhargava, A., D. Jamison, L. Lau, and C. Murray. 2001. Modeling the effects of health on economic growth. Journal of Health Economics 20: 423–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bils, M., and P.J. Klenow. 2000. Does schooling cause growth? American Economic Review 90: 1160–1183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blanchard, O.J. 1985. Debt, deficits, and finite horizons. Journal of Political Economy 93: 223–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bleakley, H. 2003. Disease and development: Evidence from the American south. Journal of the European Economic Association 1: 376–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bloom, D.E., and D. Canning. 2000. The health and wealth of nations. Science 287: 1207–1208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bloom, D.E., and R.B. Freeman. 1988. Economic development and the timing and components of population growth. Journal of Policy Modeling 10(1): 57–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bloom, D.E., and A.S. Mahal. 1997. Does the AIDS epidemic threaten economic growth? Journal of Econometrics 77: 105–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bloom, D.E., and J. Sachs. 1998. Geography, demography, and economic growth in Africa. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1998(2): 207–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bloom, D.E., D. Canning, and B. Graham. 2003. Longevity and life-cycle savings. Scandinavian Journal of Economics 105: 319–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bloom, D.E., D. Canning, and J. Sevilla. 2004. The effect of health on economic growth: A production function approach. World Development 32: 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bloom, D.E., D. Canning, R. Mansfield, and M. Moore. 2007. Demographic change, social security systems, and savings. Journal of Monetary Economics 54: 92–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bos, E., M.T. Vu, P.W. Stephens, and W. Patience. 1992. Policy research working paper series 851. Sources of world bank estimates of current mortality rates. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  21. Canning, D. 2006. The economics of HIV/AIDS in Low-income countries: The case for prevention. Journal of Economic Perspectives 20: 121–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Case, A., A. Fertig, and C. Paxson. 2005. The lasting impact of childhood health and circumstance. Journal of Health Economics 24: 365–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Commission on Macroeconomics and Health. 2001. Macroeconomics and health: Investing in health for economic development. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  24. Crafts, N., and M. Haacker. 2004. Welfare implications of HIV/AIDS. In The Macroeconomics of HIV/AIDS, ed. M. Haacker. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
  25. Cutler, D.M., and M. McClellan. 2001. Productivity change in health care. American Economic Review 91: 281–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cutler, D.M., and G. Miller. 2005. The role of public health improvements in health advances: The twentieth-century United States. Demography 42: 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cutler, D.M., A.S. Deaton, and A. Lleras-Muney. 2006. The determinants of mortality. Journal of Economic Perspectives 20(3): 71–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Deaton, A. 2006. The great escape: A review essay on Fogel’s the escape from hunger and premature death, 1700–2100. Journal of Economic Literature 44: 106–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Easterly, W. 1999. Life during growth. Journal of Economic Growth 4: 239–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fogel, R.W. 2004. The escape from hunger and premature death, 1700–2100: Europe, America, and the third world. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fries, J.F. 1980. Aging, natural death, and the compression of morbidity. New England Journal of Medicine 303: 130–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fries, J.F. 2003. Measuring and monitoring success in compressing morbidity. Annals of Internal Medicine 139: 455–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gallup, J.L., and J.D. Sachs. 2001. The economic burden of malaria. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 64(1, 2 Supplement): 85–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grossman, M. 1972. On the concept of health capital and the demand for health. Journal of Political Economy 80: 223–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gruber, J., and D. Wise. 1998. Social security and retirement: An international comparison. American Economic Review 88(2): 158–163.Google Scholar
  36. Haacker, M. 2004. HIV/AIDS: The impact on the social fabric and the economy. In The macroeconomics of HIV/AIDS, ed. M. Haacker. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
  37. Herlihy, D. 1997. The Black Death and the transformation of the west. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Hurd, M., D. McFadden, and L. Gan. 1998. Subjective survival curves and life-cycle behavior. In Inquiries in the economics of aging, ed. D. Wise. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  39. Kalemli-Ozcan, S. 2002. Does mortality decline promote economic growth? Journal of Economic Growth 7: 411–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kalemli-Ozcan, S., H.E. Ryder, and D.N. Weil. 2000. Mortality decline, human capital investment, and economic growth. Journal of Development Economics 62: 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kelley, A.C., and R.M. Schmidt. 1995. Aggregate population and economic growth correlations: The role of the components of demographic change. Demography 32: 543–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lee, R. 2003. The demographic transition: Three centuries of fundamental change. Journal of Economic Perspectives 17(4): 167–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lee, R., A. Mason, and T. Miller. 2000. Life cycle saving and the demographic transition: The case of Taiwan. Population and Development Review 26(Supplement): 194–219.Google Scholar
  44. Miguel, E., and M. Kremer. 2004. Worms: Identifying impacts on education and health in the presence of treatment externalities. Econometrica 72: 159–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mushkin, S.J. 1962. Health as an investment. Journal of Political Economy 70(5): 129–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nordhaus, W. 2003. The health of nations: The contribution of improved health to living standards. In Measuring the gains from medical research: An economic approach, ed. K.H. Murphy and R.H. Topel. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  47. Preston, S. 1975. The changing relation between mortality and level of economic development. Population Studies 29: 231–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pritchett, L., and L. Summers. 1996. Wealthier is healthier. Journal of Human Resources 31: 841–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sala-i-Martin, X., G. Doppelhofer, and R.I. Miller. 2004. Determinants of long-term growth: A Bayesian averaging of classical estimates (BACE) approach. American Economic Review 94: 813–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schultz, T.P. 1997. The demand for children in low income countries. In Handbook of population and family economics, vol. 1A, ed. M.R. Rosenzweig and O. Stark. Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  51. Schultz, T.P. 2002. Wage gains associated with height as a form of human capital. American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings 92: 349–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schultz, T.P. 2005. Productive benefits of health: Evidence from low income countries. In Health and economic growth: Findings and policy implications, ed. G. Lopez-Casasnovas, B. Riveras, and L. Currais. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  53. Shastry, G.K., and D.N. Weil. 2003. How much of cross-country income variation is explained by health? Journal of the European Economic Association 1: 387–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith, J.P. 1999. Healthy bodies and thick wallets: The dual relation between health and economic status. Journal of Economic Perspectives 13(2): 145–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Strauss, J., and D. Thomas. 1998. Health, nutrition and economic development. Journal of Economic Literature 36: 766–817.Google Scholar
  56. Thomas, D., and E. Frankenberg. 2002. Health, nutrition and prosperity: A microeconomic perspective. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 80(2): 106–113.Google Scholar
  57. Viscusi, W.K., and J.E. Aldy. 2003. The value of a statistical life: A critical review of market estimates from around the world. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 27: 5–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Young, A. 2005. The gift of the dying: The tragedy of AIDS and the welfare of future African generations. Quarterly Journal of Economics 120: 243–266.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Canning
    • 1
  • David E. Bloom
    • 1
  1. 1.