Skip to main content

Demography

  • Reference work entry
  • First Online:
The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics
  • 317 Accesses

Abstract

Demography is the analysis of population, including both techniques and substance. It is applied most often to human populations, and includes the gathering of data, the construction of models, interpretation of population changes, policy recommendations. The data used by demographers are partly cross-sectional in the form of censuses and sample surveys, partly flow data consisting of time series of births and deaths. Models that express the relation between the flow series of births, deaths and migration on the one side and the cross sections on the other are a main tradition of demography, running through the work of Lotka, Leslie and many others. Interpretation includes tracing causes of changes, and assessing their future consequences. Policy recommendations aim at lowering birth rates in countries of rapid growth, and raising it in countries below replacement.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 6,499.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 8,499.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

Bibliography

  • Arthur, W.B., and J.W. Vaupel. 1984. Some general relationships in population dynamics. Population Index 50(2): 214–226.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blumen, I., M. Kogan, and P.J. McCarthy. 1955. The industrial mobility of labor as a probability process, Cornell studies of industrial and labor relations, vol. VI. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bogue, D.J. 1985. The population of the United States: Historical trends and future projections. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bourgeois-Pichat, J. 1966. The concept of a stable population: Application to the study of populations of countries with incomplete population statistics. ST/SOA/Series A 139. New York: United Nations.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bowley, A.L. 1924. Births and population of Great Britain. Journal of the Royal Economic Society 34: 188–192.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brass, W. 1971. On the scale of mortality. In Biological aspects of demography, ed. W. Brass, 69–110. London: Taylor and Francis.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brass, W. 1974. Perspectives in population prediction, illustrated by the statistics of England and Wales. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A 137: 532–583.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brass, W. 1975. Methods for estimating fertility and mortality from limited and defective data. An occasional publication. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, International Program of Laboratories for Population Statistics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cannan, E. 1895. The probability of cessation of growth of population in England and Wales during the next century. Economic Journal 5: 505–515.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coale, A.J. 1963. Estimates of various demographic measures through the quasi-stable age distribution. In Emerging techniques in population research (39th annual conference of the Milbank Memorial Fund, 1962), 175–193. New York: Milbank Memorial Fund.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coale, A.J. 1966. Methods of estimating fertility and mortality from censuses of population. Princeton: Office of Population Research.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coale, A.J. 1984. Life table construction on the basis of two enumerations of a closed population. Population Index 50(2): 193–213.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coale, A.J., and P. Demeny. 1983. Regional model life tables and stable populations, 2nd ed. New York: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, J.E. 1984. Demographic doomsday deferred. Harvard Magazine 86(3): 50–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Demetrius, L. 1974. Demographic parameters and natural selection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 71: 4645–4647.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Easterlin, R.A. 1980. Birth and fortune: The impact of numbers on personal welfare. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Elandt-Johnson, R.C., and N.L. Johnson. 1980. Survival models and data analysis. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gini, C. 1924. Premières recherches sur la fecondabilité de la femme. Proceedings of the International Mathematics Congress 2: 889–892.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldman, N. 1978. Estimating the intrinsic rate of increase from the average numbers of younger and older sisters. Demography 15: 499–508.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goodman, L.A. 1961. Statistical methods for the mover-stayer model. Journal of the American Statistical Association 56(296): 841–868.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goodman, L.A. 1969. The analysis of population growth when the birth and death rates depend upon several factors. Biometrics 25: 659–681.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goodman, L.A., N. Keyfitz, and T.W. Pullman. 1974. Family formation and the frequency of various kinship relationships. Theoretical Population Biology 5: 1–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Graunt, J. 1662. In Natural and political observations made upon the bills of mortality, ed. Walter F. Willcox. London/Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1939.

    Google Scholar 

  • Henry, L. 1957a. Fécondité et famille. Mmdèles mathématiques I. Population 12: 413–444.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Henry, L. 1957b. Fécondité et famille. Modèles mathématiques II. Population 16: 27–48, 261–282.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaplan, E.L., and P. Meier. 1958. Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. Journal of the American Statistical Association 53: 457–481.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keyfitz, N. 1981. The limits of population forecasting. Population and Development Review 7(4): 579–593.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keyfitz, N. 1985. Applied mathematical demography, 2nd ed. New York: Springer.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Kitagawa, E.M., and P.M. Hauser. 1973. Mortality in the United States. A study in socioeconomic epidemiology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Le Bras, H. 1973. Parents, grandparents, diaeresis bisaieux. Population 28: 9–37. Trans. and ed. K. Wachter as Statistical studies of historical social structure. New York: Academic, 1978.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, R.D. 1974. The formal dynamics of controlled populations and the echo, the boom and the bust. Demography 11: 563–585.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leslie, P.H. 1945. On the use of matrices in certain population mathematics. Biometrika 33: 183–212.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lotka, A.J. 1931. Orphanhood in relation to demographic factors. Metron 7: 37–109.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lotka, A.J. 1939. Théorie analytique des associations biologiques. Part II: Analyse démographique avec application particulière à l’espèce humaine. Actualités Scientifiques et Industrielles, No. 780. Paris: Hermann et Cie.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mann, N.R., R.D. Schafer, and N.D. Singpurwalla. 1974. Methods for statistical analysis of reliability and life data. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pollard, J.H. 1966. On the use of the direct matrix product in analysing certain stochastic population models. Biometrika 53: 397–415.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Potter, R.G. 1972. Births averted by induced abortion: An application of renewal theory. Theoretical Population Biology 3: 69–86.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Potter, R.G., and M.P. Parker. 1964. Predicting the time required to conceive. Population Studies 18: 99–116.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pressat, R. 1961. L’analyse démographique: méthodes, résultats, applications. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, for Institut National d’Etudes Démographiques.

    Google Scholar 

  • Preston, S.H., and A.J. Coale. 1982. Age structure, growth, attrition, and accession: A new synthesis. Population Index 48(2): 217–259.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rogers, A. 1975. Introduction to multiregional mathematical demography. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ryder, N.B. 1964. The process of demographic transition. Demography 1(1): 74–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sauvy, A. 1952–1954. Théorie générale de la population. Vol. 1: Economie et population. Vol. II: Biologie sociale. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schoen, R. 1975. Constructing increment-decrement life tables. Demography 12: 313–324.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scudo, F.M. 1984. The ‘golden age’ of theoretical ecology: A conceptual appraisal. Revue Européenne des sciences sociales 22(67): 11–64.

    Google Scholar 

  • United Nations. 1985. World population prospects: Estimates and projections as assessed in 1982. ST/ESA/SER.A/82. New York: United Nations.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vaupel, J.W., and I.Y. Yashin. 1985. The deviant dynamics of death in heterogeneous populations. In Sociological methodology 1985, ed. N.B. Tuma. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Whelpton, P.K. 1936. An empirical method of calculating future population. Journal of the American Statistical Association 31: 457–473.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Copyright information

© 2018 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

About this entry

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this entry

Keyfitz, N. (2018). Demography. In: The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-349-95189-5_23

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics