The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

2018 Edition
| Editors: Macmillan Publishers Ltd

Urbanization

  • Sukkoo Kim
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-349-95189-5_2066

Abstract

Cities first arose in the Fertile Crescent a few thousand years after the discovery of agriculture. Yet the history of urbanization is not one of steady progress. Pre-industrial urbanization rose with technological advances in agriculture and transportation which fostered population growth and trade, but fell with famine and disease. Just as important, cities rose and fell with the military fortunes of city states, territorial empires and nation states. With the Industrial Revolution, urbanization rose dramatically. As population shifted out of agriculture into manufacturing and services, cities became the dominant landscape of human civilization.

Keywords

Amenities Civilization Division of labour Early industrialization Face-to-face interaction Feudalism Globalization Industrial Revolution Labour markets Labour productivity Marshallian externalities Middle East North, D Transaction costs Transportation costs Transportation revolution Urbanization 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

Bibliography

  1. Ades, A., and E. Glaeser. 1995. Trade and circuses: Explaining urban giants. Quarterly Journal of Economics 110: 195–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aghion, P., and S. Durlauf (eds.). 2005. Handbook of economic growth. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  3. Bairoch, P. 1988. Cities and economic development. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  4. Brewer, J. 1990. The sinews of power: War, money and the English state, 1688–1783. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Childe, V. 1950. The urban revolution. Town Planning Review 21: 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Long, J., and A. Shleifer. 1993. Princes and merchants: European city growth before the industrial revolution. Journal of Law and Economics 36: 671–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. de Vries, J. 1984. European urbanization 1500–1800. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Diamond, J. 1997. Guns, germs, and steel. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  9. Goldin, C., and K. Sokoloff. 1984. The relative productivity hypothesis of industrialization: The American case, 1820–1850. Quarterly Journal of Economics 99: 461–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hammond, M. 1972. The city in the ancient world. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Henderson, J., and J.-F. Thisse (eds.). 2004. Handbook of regional and urban economics, vol. 4. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  12. Kim, S. 1995. Expansion of markets and the geographic distribution of economic activities: The trends in U.S. regional manufacturing structure, 1860–1987. Quarterly Journal of Economics 110: 881–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kim, S. 2005a. Industrialization and urbanization: Did the steam engine contribute to the growth of cities? Explorations in Economic History 42: 586–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kim, S. 2005b. Division of labor and the rise of cities: Evidence from U.S. industrialization, 1850–1880. Mimeo. St. Louis: Washington University.Google Scholar
  15. Lane, F. 1973. Venice: A maritime republic. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Leamer, E., and M. Storper. 2001. The economic geography of the internet age. Journal of International Business Studies 32: 641–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. North, D. 1981. Structure and change in economic history. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  18. Palmer, R., and J. Colton. 1965. The history of the modern world. New York: Alfred Knoft.Google Scholar
  19. Rosenberg, N., and M. Trajtenberg. 2004. A general purpose technology at work: The Corliss steam engine in the late-nineteenth-century United States. Journal of Economic History 64: 61–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wrigley, E. 1987. People, cities and wealth. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sukkoo Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.