The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

2018 Edition
| Editors: Macmillan Publishers Ltd


  • Sukkoo Kim
Reference work entry


Cities first arose in the Fertile Crescent a few thousand years after the discovery of agriculture. Yet the history of urbanization is not one of steady progress. Pre-industrial urbanization rose with technological advances in agriculture and transportation which fostered population growth and trade, but fell with famine and disease. Just as important, cities rose and fell with the military fortunes of city states, territorial empires and nation states. With the Industrial Revolution, urbanization rose dramatically. As population shifted out of agriculture into manufacturing and services, cities became the dominant landscape of human civilization.


Amenities Civilization Division of labour Early industrialization Face-to-face interaction Feudalism Globalization Industrial Revolution Labour markets Labour productivity Marshallian externalities Middle East North, D Transaction costs Transportation costs Transportation revolution Urbanization 

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© Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sukkoo Kim
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