The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

2018 Edition
| Editors: Macmillan Publishers Ltd

Conflict and Settlement

  • Jack Hirshleifer
Reference work entry


All living beings are competitors for the means of existence. Competition takes the more intense form we call conflict when contenders seek to disable or destroy opponents, or even convert them into a supply of resources. Conflict need not always be violent; we speak, for example, of industrial conflicts (strikes and lockouts) and legal conflicts (law suits). But physical struggle is a relevant metaphor for these ordinarily non-violent contests.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Blainey, G. 1973. The causes of war. New York: The Free Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boulding, K.E. 1962. Conflict and defense: A general theory. New York: Harper & Brothers.Google Scholar
  3. Bueno de Mesquita, B. 1981. The war trap. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Earle, E.M. (ed.). 1941. Makers of modern strategy: Military thought from Machiavelli to Hitler. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Kahn, H. 1960. On thermonuclear war. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Kahn, H. 1962. Thinking about the unthinkable. New York: Avon Books.Google Scholar
  7. Keegan, J. 1976. The face of battle. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  8. Lanchester, F.W. 1916. Aircraft in warfare: The dawn of the fourth arm. London: Constable. Extract reprinted in the world of mathematics, ed. James R. Newman, vol. 4. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1956, 2138–2157.Google Scholar
  9. McNeill, W.H. 1982. The pursuit of power: Technology, armed force, and society since AD 1000. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  10. Rapoport, A. 1960. Fights, games, and debates. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  11. Richardson, L.F. 1960a. Arms and insecurity: A mathematical study of the causes and origins of war. Pittsburgh: Quadrangle.Google Scholar
  12. Richardson, L.F. 1960b. Statistics of deadly quarrels. Pittsburgh: Quadrangle.Google Scholar
  13. Schelling, T.C. 1960. The strategy of conflict. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Snyder, G.H., and P. Diesing. 1977. Conflict among nations: Bargaining, decision making, and system structure in international crises. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Tullock, G. 1974. The social dilemma: The economics of war and revolution. Blacksburg: University Publications.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jack Hirshleifer
    • 1
  1. 1.