Many observers trace the beginnings of modern financial investment theory to the pioneering article of Markowitz (1952), published only a third of a century ago. This is not surprising in view of the dominant position that the mean-variance approach to portfolio choice analysed by Markowitz has attained in the last two decades, particularly in empirical studies. Financial investment theory under uncertainty goes well beyond this particular model, however, and somewhat further back in time as well. This entry will first examine the pure portfolio model, both the single-period and the intertemporal varieties. It will then turn to consumptioninvestment formulations.
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