The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

2018 Edition
| Editors: Macmillan Publishers Ltd


  • Jagdish Bhagwati
Reference work entry


Smuggling, or illegal trade, has traditionally been consigned to a peripheral role in the theoretical analysis of international trade. The phenomenon was noted but not integrated into formal analysis, except for exotic, early efforts such as Beccaria’s (1764–5) which would surface after the demise of this neglect.

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© Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jagdish Bhagwati
    • 1
  1. 1.