Skip to main content


  • Reference work entry
  • First Online:
The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics
  • 66 Accesses


Reparations for damage caused, paid by the loser following wars, have been known since Antiquity, although much of the literature focuses on the First World War. There has been much debate, both politically and among economists, on the appropriate basis on which to pay.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 6,499.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 8,499.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Bainville, J. 1920. Les Conséquences Politiques de la Paix. Paris: Nouvelle librairie nationale.

    Google Scholar 

  • D’Argent, P. 2002. Les réparations de guerre en droit international public. La responsabilité internationale des Etats à l’épreuve de la guerre. Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Droit de Louvain, 36. Brussels: Bruylant.

    Google Scholar 

  • Devereux, M.B., and G.W. Smith. 2007. Transfer problem dynamics: Macroeconomics of the Franco-Prussian war indemnity. Journal of Monetary Economics 54: 2375–2398.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keynes, J.M. 1919. The economic consequences of the peace. London: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Keynes, J.M. 1922. A revision of the treaty. London: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Keynes, J.M. 1929. The German transfer problem. Economic Journal 39: 1–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Klug, A. 1990. The theory and practice of reparations and American loans to Germany, 1925–1929. Princeton working papers in international economics, G-90- 03, International Finance Section.

    Google Scholar 

  • Livy. Ab urbe condita (The early history of Rome, books I–V, and The history of Rome from its foundation, books XXI–XXX: The war with Hannibal). London: Penguin Classics, 2002 and 1976.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mantoux, E. 1946. The Carthaginian peace or the economic consequences of Mr. Keynes. London: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Metzler, M. 2006. Lever of empire: The international gold standard and the crisis of liberalism in prewar Japan. Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Morrison, R.J. 1992. Gulf war reparations: Iraq, OPEC, and the transfer problem. American Journal of Economics and Sociology 51: 385–399.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Occhino, F., K. Oosterlinck, and E. White. 2008. How much can a victor force the vanquished to pay? Journal of Economic History 68: 1–45.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ohlin, B. 1929. The reparation problem: A discussion. Economic Journal 39: 172–182.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schuker, S.A. 1988. ‘American reparations’ to Germany, 1919–33: Implications for the third-world debt crisis. Princeton Studies in International Finance no. 61.

    Google Scholar 

  • White, E.N. 2001. Making the French pay: The cost and consequences of the Napoleonic reparations. European Review of Economic History 5: 337–365.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Editor information

Copyright information

© 2018 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

About this entry

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this entry

Oosterlinck, K. (2018). Reparations. In: The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics