The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

Living Edition
| Editors: Palgrave Macmillan


  • Alan Ryan
Living reference work entry


In The Philosophy of History Hegel declared that the history of the world was the history of freedom. Human history had been a process of education and self-discovery at the end of which men could see that freedom and reason were their very essence. But Hegel was conscious of the fact that ‘freedom’ was not the same thing at all stages of its history – a truth which is reflected in the inconclusiveness of philosophical attempts to answer the question ‘what is freedom?’.


Economic Freedom Civil Liberty Political Freedom Political Liberty Natural Liberty 
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  1. Berlin, I. 1969. Four essays on liberty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Hegel, G.W.F. 1822–30. Lectures on the philosophy of world history: Introduction. Trans. H.B. Nisbet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  3. Lukes, S.M. 1985. Marxism and morality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Macpherson, C.B. 1973. Democratic theory. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  5. Mill, J.S. 1859. On liberty, , 1974. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  6. Nozick, R. 1974. Anarchy, state and utopia. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Ryan
    • 1
  1. 1.