Reference work entry

Structure of Higher Education System


Higher education is provided by public and private universities and colleges. It is administred by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports. The rectors of public universities are appointed by the Minister of Education, faculty members by the rectors. Since 1993, tuition fees are charged in public institutions. The State Training Fund, established in 1994, awards funds for student grants and loans that are administered by universities and colleges.

Stages of studies

University level first stage

Bachelor’s degree

Students follow 4-year programmes leading to a Bachelor’s degree.

University level second stage

Master’s degree

The Master’s degree is conferred after 2 years’ study following upon the Bachelor’s degree.

University level third stage

Doctorate degree

The Doctorate degree is awarded to those who have obtained a Master’s degree and have studied at postgraduate level for three years and submitted a dissertation.


Copyright information

© International Association of Universities 2019

Personalised recommendations