Reference work entry

Corruption in government and business is widespread. But the tide is turning. Nick Kochan and Robin Goodyear explain what is being done to enforce minimum standards in their book Corruption.

As a proportion of world trade, the value of bribes is phenomenal. The World Bank estimates that more than US$1trn. in bribes are paid each year, amounting to 3% of the world’s economy.

High-profile cases involving major companies have turned the spotlight on the extent to which bribery distorts global markets and destroys communities. With campaigning groups voicing demands for greater transparency, the corporate world is under growing pressure to adopt anti-corruption practices.

Transparency International (TI) is the foremost activist group in the field. This non-governmental organization (NGO) has chapters in over 90 countries. Founded in Berlin in 1993 by Peter Eigen, a former regional director of the World Bank, TI campaigns to promote transparency in elections, public administration,...


  1. Kochan, Nick and Goodyear, Robin, Corruption: The New Corporate Challenge. Palgrave Macmillan, 7Google Scholar

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