United Kingdom

Reference work entry


  • Capital: London

  • Population estimate, 2015: 64.72 m.

  • GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 39,267

  • HDI/world rank, 2014: 0.907/14=

  • Internet domain extension: .uk

Civil Aviation

All UK airports handled a total of 251.7 m. passengers in 2015 (238.6 m. in 2014). London area airports (Heathrow, Gatwick, London City, Luton, Southend and Stansted) handled 155.3 m. passengers in 2015. Heathrow handled 75.0 m. passengers and 1.5 m. tonnes of freight in 2015. Heathrow was the world’s third busiest airport for passenger traffic in 2013 and Europe’s busiest. For many years more international passengers used Heathrow than any other airport in the world, but in 2014 it lost this status to Dubai.


The climate is cool temperate oceanic, with mild conditions and rainfall evenly distributed over the year, though the weather is very changeable because of cyclonic influences. In general, temperatures are higher in the west and lower in the east in winter and rather the reverse in summer. Rainfall...

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© Springer Nature Limited 2019

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