Jamhuri ya Uganda (Republic of Uganda)
Reference work entry


  • Capital: Kampala

  • Population estimate, 2015: 39.03 m.

  • GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 1,613

  • HDI/world rank, 2014: 0.483/163=

  • Internet domain extension: .ug

Civil Aviation

There is an international airport at Entebbe, 40 km from Kampala. Air Uganda, formed in 2007, was the national airline until July 2014. It ceased operations when the issuer of its air operator's certificate, the Ugandan Civil Aviation Authority, failed an audit carried out by the International Civil Aviation Organization. In 2012 scheduled airline traffic of Uganda-based carriers flew 3.8 m. km; passenger-km totalled 444.9 m. in the same year. In 2012 Entebbe handled 1,342,134 passengers (1,238,466 on international flights) and 56,519 tonnes of freight.


Although in equatorial latitudes, the climate is more tropical because of its elevation, and is characterized by two distinct rainy seasons, March–May and Sept.–Nov. In comparison, June–Aug. and Dec.–Feb. are relatively dry. Temperatures vary little over the year. Kampala, Jan. 74 °F (23.3 °C), July 70 °F (21.1 °C). Annual rainfall 46.5″ (1,180 mm). Entebbe, Jan. 72 °F (22.2 °C), July 69 °F (20.6 °C). Annual rainfall 63.9″ (1,624 mm).

Constitution and Government

The President is head of state and head of government, and is elected for a five-year term by adult suffrage. In Aug. 2005 Parliament amended the constitution to allow an incumbent to hold office for more than two terms, thus enabling President Museveni to serve another term in office. Having lapsed in 1966, the kabakaship was revived as a ceremonial office in 1993. Ronald Muwenda Mutebi (b. 13 April 1955) was crowned Mutebi II, 36th Kabaka, on 31 July 1993. Until 1994 the national legislature was the 278-member National Resistance Council, but this was replaced by a 284-member Constituent Assembly in March 1994. A new constitution was adopted on 8 Oct. 1995 and the Constituent Assembly dissolved. Uganda’s parliament is now the 386-member National Assembly (238 members elected by popular vote, 137 indirectly elected from special interest groups—including women and the army—and 11 ex officio members). A referendum on the return of multi-party democracy was held on 29 June 2000, but 88% of voters supported President Museveni’s ‘no-party’ Movement system of government. Turnout was 51%. In Feb. 2003 President Museveni pledged to lift the ban on political parties. In a referendum held on 28 July 2005, 92.4% of voters backed the restoration of a multi-party political system, although the opposition called for a boycott.


The monetary unit is the Uganda shilling (UGX) notionally divided into 100 cents.


Defence expenditure in 2013 totalled US$342 m. (US$10 per capita), representing 1.6% of GDP.


In 2010 agriculture accounted for 24.2% of GDP, industry 25.5% and services 50.3%.


The labour force in 2013 was 14,589,000 (10,709,000 in 2003). 78.1% of the population aged 15–64 was economically active in 2013. In the same year 4.2% of the population was unemployed. Uganda had 0.25 m. people living in slavery according to the Walk Free Foundation’s 2013 Global Slavery Index.


There were five daily newspapers in 2008 with a combined average daily circulation of 110,000.


In 2005 the Uganda Railways network totalled 1,241 km (metre gauge). In 1996 passenger services were suspended and have not been reinstated in the meantime. Freight tonne-km in 2015 came to 189 m.


According to the Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life the population was 86.7% Christian in 2010, with Muslims accounting for 9.1%. Of the Christians, 51% in 2010 were Protestants and 49% Catholics. In Feb. 2016 there was one Roman Catholic cardinal.


The road network totals around 140,000 km (4% paved). In 2014 Uganda had 20,544 km of national roads. There were 81,300 passenger cars in use in 2007, 79,300 lorries and vans, 40,500 buses and coaches, and 176,500 motorcycles and mopeds. In 2007 there were 17,428 road accidents resulting in 2,779 deaths.

Social Statistics

2008 estimates: births, 1,461,000; deaths, 401,000. Rates, 2008 estimates (per 1,000 population): births, 46.2; deaths, 12.7. Uganda has one of the youngest populations of any country, with 76% of the population under the age of 30 and 48% under 15. Uganda’s life expectancy at birth in 2013 was 58.0 years for males and 60.4 years for females. Life expectancy declined dramatically until the late 1990s, largely owing to the huge number of people in the country with HIV. However, for both males and females expectation of life is now starting to rise again. Annual population growth rate, 2000–08, 3.2%. Infant mortality, 2010, 63 per 1,000 live births; fertility rate, 2008, 6.3 births per woman.


In June 2013 there were 207,500 main (fixed) telephone lines; mobile phone subscriptions numbered 16,569,000 in June 2013 (44.1 per 100 persons). In 2013 an estimated 16.2% of the population were internet users. In June 2012 there were 415,000 Facebook users.

Territory and Population

Uganda is bounded in the north by South Sudan, in the east by Kenya, in the south by Tanzania and Rwanda, and the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Total area 241,550 km2, including 41,740 km2 of inland waters. The 2014 provisional census population was 34,856,813 (16,935,456 males, 17,921,357 females); density, 174 per km2. The largest city is Kampala, the capital (provisional census population of 1,516,210 in 2014). Other major towns are Kira, Mbarara, Mukono, Gulu, Nansana, Masaka and Kasese. In 2011, 13.5% of the population lived in urban areas. The country is administratively divided into one city and 111 districts, which are grouped in four geographical regions (which do not have administrative status). The official languages are English and (since 2005) Kiswahili. About 70% of the population speak Bantu languages; Nilotic languages are spoken in the north and east.


In 2011 there were 1,151,000 international tourist arrivals (excluding day-visitors); spending by tourists totalled US$950 m.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Limited 2019

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