Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Republic of Turkey)
Reference work entry


  • Capital: Ankara

  • Population estimate, 2015: 78.67 m.

  • GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 18,677

  • HDI/world rank, 2014: 0.761/72

  • Internet domain extension: .tr

Civil Aviation

There are international airports at İstanbul (Atatürk and Sabiha Gökçen), Dalaman (Muğla), Ankara (Esenboga), İzmir (Adnan Menderes), Adana and Antalya. The national carrier is Turkish Airlines, which is 49.1% state-owned. In 2014 it carried 54,675,000 passengers (31,967,000 on international flights) and flew 106,787 m. revenue passenger-km. In 2009 İstanbul’s Atatürk Airport handled 29,854,119 passengers (18,396,050 on international flights) and 381,174 tonnes of freight.


Coastal regions have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, moist winters and hot, dry summers. The interior plateau has more extreme conditions, with low and irregular rainfall, cold and snowy winters, and hot, almost rainless summers. Ankara, Jan. 32.5 °F (0.3 °C), July 73 °F (23 °C). Annual rainfall 14.7″ (367 mm). İstanbul, Jan. 41 °F...

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