Pule’anga Fakatu’i ‘o Tonga (Kingdom of Tonga)
Reference work entry


  • Capital: Nuku’alofa

  • Population estimate, 2015: 106,000

  • GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 5,069

  • HDI/world rank, 2014: 0.717/100

  • Internet domain extension: .to

Civil Aviation

There is an international airport at Nuku’alofa on Tongatapu. The national carrier was the state-owned Royal Tongan Airlines, but it ceased operations in May 2004 owing to financial difficulties. In 2009 Nuku’alofa (Fua’Amotu International) handled 222,612 passengers and 1,417 tonnes of freight.


Generally a healthy climate, although Jan. to March hot and humid, with temperatures of 90 °F (32.2 °C). Rainfall amounts are comparatively high, being greatest from Dec. to March. Nuku’alofa, Jan. 25.8 °C, July 21.3 °C. Annual rainfall 1,643 mm. Vava’u, Jan. 27.3 °C, July 23.4 °C. Annual rainfall 2,034 mm.

Constitution and Government

The reigning King is Tupou VI (‘Aho‘eitu ‘Unuaki‘otonga Tuku‘aho Tupou VI), born 12 July 1959, succeeded on 18 March 2012 on the death of his brother, George Tupou V. The current...

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© Springer Nature Limited 2019

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