République Togolaise (Togolese Republic)
Reference work entry


  • Capital: Lomé

  • Population estimate, 2015: 7.31 m.

  • GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 1,228

  • HDI/world rank, 2014: 0.484/162

  • Internet domain extension: .tg

Civil Aviation

In 2010 ASKY Airlines (a pan-African airline with its hub in Lomé) flew from Lomé-Tokoin airport to Abidjan, Accra, Bamako, Banjul, Brazzaville, Cotonou, Dakar, Douala, Kinshasa, Lagos, Libreville and Ouagadougou. There were international flights in 2010 with other airlines to Abidjan, Accra, Addis Ababa, Bamako, Casablanca, Cotonou, Dakar, Libreville, Ouagadougou, Paris and Tripoli (Libya). In 2012 Tokoin handled 472,313 passengers (417,672 on international flights) and 7,256 tonnes of freight.


The tropical climate produces wet seasons from March to July and from Oct. to Nov. in the south. The north has one wet season, from April to July. The heaviest rainfall occurs in the mountains of the west, southwest and centre. Lomé, Jan. 81 °F (27.2 °C), July 76 °F (24.4 °C). Annual rainfall 35″ (875 mm).

Constitution and Government

A referendum on 27 Sept. 1992 approved a new constitution by 98.1% of votes cast. Under this the President and the National Assembly were directly elected for 5-year terms. Initially the president was allowed to be re-elected only once. However, on 30 Dec. 2002 parliament approved an amendment to the constitution lifting the restriction on the number of times that the president may be re-elected. The National Assembly has 91 seats and is elected for a 5-year term.


The unit of currency is the franc CFA (XOF) with a parity of 655.957 francs CFA to one euro.


There is selective conscription that lasts for 2 years. Defence expenditure totalled US$72 m. in 2013 (US$10 per capita), representing 1.8% of GDP.


Agriculture contributed 31% of GDP in 2011, industry 16% and services 53%.


In 2010 the estimated labour force was 3,059,000 (56% males), up from 2,182,000 in 2000. In Aug. 2008 the statutory monthly minimum wage was raised to 28,000 francs CFA. Togo had 49,000 people living in slavery according to the Walk Free Foundation’s 2013 Global Slavery Index.


There is one government-controlled daily newspaper, Togo-Presse (circulation of 5,000 in 2008).


There are four railways (metre gauge) connecting Lomé, with Aného (continuing to Cotonou in Benin), Kpalimé, Tabligbo and (via Atakpamé) Blitta; total length in 2005, 532 km. In 2005 the railways carried 1.1 m. tonnes of freight. There has been no passenger rail service since 1996.


A study by the Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life estimated that there were 2.64 m. Christians in 2010, 2.15 m. folk religionists and 840,000 Muslims. A further 370,000 people had no religious affiliation. Of the Christians in 2010, an estimated 60% were Catholics and 39% Protestants.


There were 11,652 km of roads in 2007, including 3,067 km of highways or national roads. In 2007 there were 10,600 passenger cars in use, 2,200 lorries and vans and 34,200 motorcycles and mopeds.


In Jan. 2009 there were 18 ships of 300 GT or over registered, totalling 33,000 GT.

Social Statistics

2008 estimates: births, 212,000; deaths, 53,000. Estimated rates, 2008 (per 1,000 population): births, 32.9; deaths, 8.2. Expectation of life (2013) was 55.6 years for males and 57.4 for females. Annual population growth rate, 2005–10, 2.6%. Infant mortality, 2010, 66 per 1,000 live births; fertility rate, 2008, 4.3 births per woman.


In 2013 there were 62,500 main (fixed) telephone lines in Togo; mobile phone subscriptions numbered 4,263,000 that year (625.3 per 1,000 persons). In 2013 an estimated 4.5% of the population were internet users.

Territory and Population

Togo is bounded in the west by Ghana, north by Burkina Faso, east by Benin and south by the Gulf of Guinea. The area is 56,600 km2. 2010 census population, 6,191,155 (3,182,060 females); density, 109 per km2. In 2011, 44.1% of the population lived in urban areas. In 2010, 42% were below the age of 15. The capital is Lomé (2010 census population, 837,437), other towns being Sokodé (95,070), Kara (94,878), Kpalimé (75,084), Atakpamé (69,261), Dapaong (58,071) and Tsévié (54,474). There are 37 ethnic groups. The south is largely populated by Ewe-speaking peoples (forming 23% of the population), Watyi (10%) and other related groups, while the north is mainly inhabited by Hamitic groups speaking Kabre (14%), Tem (6%) and Gurma (3%). The official language is French but Ewe and Kabre are also taught in schools.


In 2010 there were 202,000 international tourists staying at hotels and similar establishments; spending by tourists totalled US$66 m. in the same year.

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© Springer Nature Limited 2019

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