Jumkhurii Tojikiston (Republic of Tajikistan)
Reference work entry


  • Capital: Dushanbe

  • Population estimate, 2015: 8.48 m.

  • GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 2,517

  • HDI/world rank, 20,134: 0.624/129

  • Internet domain extension: .tj

Civil Aviation

There are international airports at Dushanbe and Khujand. The national carrier is Tajik Air, which has flights to 11 international destinations as well as operating domestic services. In 2012 scheduled airline traffic of Tajik-based carriers flew 10.4 m. km; passenger-km totalled 2.9 bn. in the same year.


Considering its altitude, Tajikistan is a comparatively dry country. July to Sept. are particularly dry months. Winters are cold but spring comes earlier than farther north. Dushanbe, Jan. −10 °C, July 25 °C. Annual rainfall 375 mm.

Constitution and Government

In Nov. 1994 a new constitution was approved by a 90% favourable vote by the electorate, which enhanced the President’s powers. The head of state is the President, elected by universal suffrage. When the 1994 constitution took effect the term of...

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