Jumhuriya al-Arabya as-Suriya (Syrian Arab Republic)
Reference work entry


  • Capital: Damascus

  • Population estimate, 2015: 18.50 m.

  • GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 5,771

  • HDI/world rank, 2014: 0.594/134=

  • Internet domain extension: .sy

Civil Aviation

Damascus airport has ceased operations on several occasions amid fierce fighting since the outbreak of the civil war in 2011. No major international air carriers currently fly to Damascus.


The climate is Mediterranean in type, with mild wet winters and dry, hot summers, though there are variations in temperatures and rainfall between the coastal regions and the interior, which even includes desert conditions. The more mountainous parts are subject to snowfall. Damascus, Jan. 38.1 °F (3.4 °C), July 77.4 °F (25.2 °C). Annual rainfall 8.8″ (217 mm). Aleppo, Jan. 36.7 °F (2.6 °C), July 80.4 °F (26.9 °C). Annual rainfall 10.2″ (258 mm). Homs, Jan. 38.7 °F (3.7 °C), July 82.4 °F (28 °C). Annual rainfall 3.4″ (86.7 mm).

Constitution and Government

A new constitution was adopted on 27 Feb. 2012, after receiving...

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