Koninkrijk der Nederlanden (Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Reference work entry


  • Capital: Amsterdam

  • Seat of government: The Hague

  • Population estimate, 2015: 16.93 m.

  • GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 45,435

  • HDI/world rank, 2014: 0.922/5

  • Internet domain extension: .nl

Civil Aviation

There are international airports at Amsterdam (Schiphol), Rotterdam, Maastricht and Eindhoven. The Royal Dutch Airlines (KLM) was founded on 7 Oct. 1919. In Oct. 2003 it merged with Air France to form Air France-KLM, in which the French state owns a 15.7% stake. Airport passenger traffic reached 53.9 m. in 2011: Amsterdam handled 49.8 m. passengers, Eindhoven 2.6 m. and Rotterdam 1.1 m.


A cool temperate maritime climate, marked by mild winters and cool summers, but with occasional continental influences. Coastal temperatures vary from 37 °F (3 °C) in winter to 61 °F (16 °C) in summer, but inland the winters are slightly colder and the summers slightly warmer. Rainfall is least in the months Feb. to May, but inland there is a well-defined summer maximum in July and Aug. The...

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Limited 2019

Personalised recommendations