Mongol Uls
Reference work entry


  • Capital: Ulaanbaatar

  • Population estimate, 2015: 2.96 m.

  • GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 10,729

  • HDI/world rank, 2014: 0.727/90=

  • Internet domain extension: .mn

Civil Aviation

MIAT Mongolian Airlines operates internal services, and in 2010 flew from Ulaanbaatar to Beijing, Berlin, Moscow, Seoul and Tokyo. In 2012 scheduled airline traffic of Mongolian-based carriers flew 7.4 m. km; passenger-km totalled 861.0 m. in the same year. In 2012 Ulaanbaatar handled 1,096,649 passengers and 6,143 tonnes of freight.


A very extreme climate, with 6 months of mean temperatures below freezing, but much higher temperatures occur for a month or two in summer. Rainfall is very low and limited to the months from mid-May to mid-Sept. Ulaanbaatar, Jan. –14 °F (–25.6 °C), July 61 °F (16.1 °C). Annual rainfall 8″ (208 mm).

Constitution and Government

The constitution of 12 Feb. 1992 abolished the ‘People’s Democracy’, introduced democratic institutions and a market economy and guarantees freedom...

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