Republika Makedonija (The Republic of Macedonia) (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)
Reference work entry


  • Capital: Skopje

  • Population estimate, 2015: 2.08 m.

  • GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 11,780

  • HDI/world rank, 2014: 0.747/81=

  • Internet domain extension: .mk

Civil Aviation

There are international airports at Skopje and Ohrid. A new Macedonia-based carrier, Aeromak, has been established to replace MAT Macedonian Airlines, the former flag carrier which ceased operations in 2009. In 2009 Skopje handled 602,298 passengers (658,366 in 2008) and 2,326 tonnes of freight. The much smaller airport at Ohrid handled 36,652 passengers in 2009 (44,413 in 2008).


Macedonia has a mixed Mediterranean-continental type climate, with cold moist winters and hot dry summers. Skopje, Jan. −0.4 °C, July 23.1 °C.

Constitution and Government

The President is directly elected for 5-year terms. Candidates must be citizens aged at least 40 years. The parliament is a 123-member single-chamber Assembly (Sobranie), elected by universal suffrage for 4-year terms. There is a Constitutional Court whose members are elected by the assembly for non-renewable 8-year terms, and a National Security Council chaired by the President. Laws passed by the Assembly must be countersigned by the President, who may return them for reconsideration, but cannot veto them if they gain a two-thirds majority.


The national currency of Macedonia is the denar (MKD), of 100 deni.


The President is the C.-in-C. of the armed forces. Compulsory national military service was abolished in 2006. Defence expenditure in 2012 totalled US$129 m. (US$62 per capita), representing 1.3% of GDP.


Agriculture accounted for 11.3% of GDP in 2010, industry 27.8% and services 60.9%.


In April 2004 there were 522,995 employed persons, including: 116,300 in manufacturing; 87,608 in agriculture, hunting and forestry; 74,218 in wholesale and retail trade/repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods; and 33,635 in education. The number of unemployed persons in 2004 was 309,286, giving an unemployment rate of 37.2%.


There were 12 daily newspapers in 2008 with a circulation of 295,000 copies. Dnevnik is the most popular with a daily circulation of 50,000 copies in 2008.


In 2009 there were 699 km of railways (234 km electrified). 1.5 m. passengers and 2.9 m. tonnes of freight were transported in 2009. The former Macedonian Railways was reorganized in 2007 with two new entities being created—Macedonian Railways Infrastructure (PE Makedonski eleznici Infrastructure, or M-I), which is responsible for the maintenance and operation of the infrastructure, and Macedonian Railways Transport (M Transport AD, or M-T), which is responsible for the operation of passenger and freight services.


Macedonia is traditionally Orthodox but the church is not established and there is freedom of religion. A study by the Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life estimated that there were 1.33 m. Orthodox Christians in 2010 and 810,000 Muslims (mainly Sunni). In 1967 an autocephalous Orthodox church—the Macedonian Orthodox Church—split off from the Serbian Orthodox Church. Its head is the Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia, whose seat is at Skopje.


In 2007 there were 221 km of motorways, 690 km of other main roads, 3,774 km of regional roads and 9,155 km of local roads. There were 248,800 passenger cars in use in 2007, plus 2,300 buses and coaches, and 26,600 lorries and vans. In the same year there were 4,037 road accidents with 173 fatalities.

Social Statistics

In 2011: live births, 22,770; deaths, 19,465; marriages, 14,736; divorces, 1,753; infant deaths, 172. Rates (per 1,000 population): live births, 11.1; deaths, 9.5; marriages, 7.2; divorces, 0.9. Infant mortality, 2011 (per 1,000 live births), 7.6. Expectation of life at birth in 2007 was 71.7 years for males and 76.5 years for females. Annual population growth rate, 2005–10, 0.2%. In 2012 the most popular age range for marrying was 25–29 for males and 20–24 for females. Fertility rate, 2011, 1.6 births per woman.


In 2011 there were 413,500 landline telephone subscriptions (equivalent to 200.3 per 1,000 inhabitants) and 2,257,100 mobile phone subscriptions (or 1,093.6 per 1,000 inhabitants). In 2011, 56.7% of the population were internet users. In 2002 the Hungarian firm Matav acquired a 51% stake in MakTel, the state monopoly telecommunications provider, in the most significant economic development in the country’s history. The deal was worth €618.2 m. (US$568.4 m.) over 2 years. In March 2012 there were 880,000 Facebook users.

Territory and Population

Macedonia (referred to within the United Nations as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) is bounded in the north by Serbia, in the east by Bulgaria, in the south by Greece and in the west by Albania. Its area is 25,713 km2, including 490 km2 of inland water. According to the 2002 census final results, the population on 1 Nov. 2002 was 2,022,547. A census scheduled for 2011 was deferred following ethnic disputes. The main ethnic group are Macedonians, followed by Albanians, with smaller numbers of Turks, Roma, Serbs and Bosniaks. Ethnic Albanians predominate on the western side of Macedonia. Population estimate, Dec. 2013, 2,065,769; density, 82 per km2. Minorities are represented in the Council for Inter-Ethnic Relations. In 2011, 59.4% of the population lived in urban areas. Macedonia is divided into 84 municipalities. The major cities (with 2013 population estimates) are: Skopje, the capital, 497,900; Kumanovo, 72,800; Bitola, 72,400; Prilep, 65,400; Tetovo, 55,600. The official language is Macedonian, which uses the Cyrillic alphabet. Around 25% of the population speak Albanian.


There were 261,696 foreign tourists in 2010, the highest total since 1991. The main countries of origin of non-resident tourists in 2010 were: Serbia (13.7%), Greece (10.3%), Turkey (7.7%) and Albania (6.5%).

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© Springer Nature Limited 2019

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