Kyrgyz Respublikasy (Kyrgyz Republic)
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  • Capital: Bishkek

  • Population estimate, 2015: 5.94 m.

  • GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 3,044

  • HDI/world rank, 2014: 0.655/120

  • Internet domain extension: .kg

Civil Aviation

There is an international airport at Bishkek (Manas). The national carrier is Air Kyrgyzstan. In 2012 scheduled airline traffic of Kyrgyz-based carriers flew 5.0 m. km; passenger-km totalled 522.9 m. in the same year.


The climate varies from dry continental to polar in the high Tien-Shan, to sub-tropical in the southwest (Fergana Valley) and temperate in the northern foothills. Bishkek, Jan. 9 °F (−13 °C), July 70 °F (21 °C). Annual rainfall 14.8″ (375 mm).

Constitution and Government

A new constitution was adopted in June 2010 after it won overwhelming support in a referendum following the ousting of the incumbent president, Kurmanbek Bakiyev, in April 2010. Under the terms of the constitution, greater power is invested in parliament at the expense of the presidency. The president is allowed to serve a...

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© Springer Nature Limited 2019

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