Population estimate, 2015: 17.63 m.
GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 20,867
HDI/world rank, 2014: 0.788/56
Internet domain extension: .kz
The national carrier is Air Astana, which carried 3,770,000 passengers in 2014. There are international airports at Almaty and Astana.
The climate is generally fairly dry. Winters are cold but spring comes earlier in the south than in the far north. Almaty, Jan. −4 °C, July 24 °C. Annual rainfall 598 mm.
Constitution and Government
Relying on a judgement of the Constitutional Court that the 1994 parliamentary elections were invalid, President Nazarbayev dissolved parliament on 11 March 1995 and began to rule by decree. A referendum on the adoption of a new constitution was held on 30 Aug. 1995. The electorate was 8.8 m.; turnout was 80%. 89% of votes cast were in favour. The Constitution thus adopted allowed the President to rule by decree and to dissolve parliament if it holds a no-confidence vote or...