Jumhouriya al ‘Iraqia (Republic of Iraq)
Reference work entry


  • Capital: Baghdad

  • Population estimate, 2015: 36.42 m.

  • GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 14,003

  • HDI/world rank, 2014: 0.654/121

  • Internet domain extension: .iq

Civil Aviation

In 2000 there were international flights for the first time since the 1991 Gulf War, with air links being established between Iraq and Egypt, Jordan and Syria. Since 2003 the two international airports at Baghdad and Basra have undergone post-war reconstruction. Major domestic airports are at Mosul, Kirkuk and Irbil. In May 2010 the government dissolved the state airline, Iraqi Airways, owing to a legal dispute with Kuwait dating back to the Iraqi invasion in 1990. It began flying again in 2012 and now serves a number of destinations in Europe, the Middle East and Asia.


The climate is mainly arid, with limited and unreliable rainfall and a large annual range of temperature. Summers are very hot and winters are cold. Baghdad, Jan. 50 °F (10 °C), July 95 °F (35 °C). Annual rainfall 6″ (140 mm). Basra, Jan....

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