Equatorial Guinea

República de Guinea Ecuatorial (Republic of Equatorial Guinea)
Reference work entry


  • Capital: Malabo

  • Population estimate, 2015: 799,000

  • GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 21,056

  • HDI/world rank, 2014: 0.587/138

  • Internet domain extension: .gq

Civil Aviation

There is an international airport at Malabo. There were international flights in 2010 to Addis Ababa, Casablanca, Douala, Frankfurt, Madrid, Nairobi and Paris. In 2009 Malabo handled 283,981 passengers.


The climate is equatorial, with alternate wet and dry seasons. In Rio Muni, the wet season lasts from Dec. to Feb.

Constitution and Government

A Constitution was approved in a plebiscite in Aug. 1982 by 95% of the votes cast and was amended in Jan. 1995. It provided for an 11-member Council of State, and for a 41-member House of Representatives of the People. The President presides over a Council of Ministers. On 12 Oct. 1987 a single new political party was formed as the Partido Democrático de Guinea Ecuatorial. A referendum on 17 Nov. 1991 approved the institution of multi-party democracy, and a law to this effect was passed in Jan. 1992. The electorate is restricted to citizens who have resided in Equatorial Guinea for at least 10 years. A parliament created as a result, the Cámara de Representantes del Pueblo (House of People’s Representatives), has 100 seats, with members elected for a 5-year term by proportional representation in multi-member constituencies. In Nov. 2011 further constitutional amendments were approved by referendum. Official results indicated 97.7% support and turnout of 91.8%, although opposition parties alleged fraud. The amendments relaxed restrictions on the number of terms the President can serve and on the age of incumbents (previously set at between 40 and 75 years old), and provide for the creation of a Senate. The Senate has 75 members of whom 55 are elected and 15 appointed by the president, with five other ex officio members. A new position of Vice President was established, to be appointed by the President.


On 2 Jan. 1985 the country joined the Franc Zone and the ekpwele was replaced by the franc CFA (XAF) which now has a parity value of 655.957 francs CFA to one euro.


In 2011 defence expenditure totalled an estimated US$8 m. (around US$12 per capita).


Crude petroleum contributed 58.8% to GDP in 2009; followed by construction, 18.4%; manufacturing, 13.4%.


In 2010 the estimated economically active population was 270,000 (69% males). The wage-earning non-agricultural workforce is small.


There are no daily newspapers, although there are a number of periodicals that are published at varying degrees of regularity.


According to the Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life, an estimated 81% of the population in 2010 was Roman Catholic. There are also small Protestant and Muslim minorities.


In 2015 the road network covered an estimated 2,700 km, around two-thirds of which are paved.


Bata is the main port, handling mainly timber. The other ports are Luba, formerly San Carlos, in Bioko, and Malabo, Evinayong and Mbini on the mainland. In Jan. 2009 there were seven ships of 300 GT or over registered, totalling 5,000 GT.

Social Statistics

2008 estimates: births, 25,000; deaths, 10,000. Rates (2008 estimates, per 1,000 population); birth, 38.0; death, 15.0. Life expectancy (2013): male, 51.7 years; female, 54.6. Annual population growth rate, 2000–08, 2.8%. Infant mortality, 2010, 81 per 1,000 live births; fertility rate, 2008, 5.3 births per woman.


In 2010 there were 13,500 main (fixed) telephone lines. In the same year mobile phone subscribers numbered 399,000 (570.1 per 1,000 persons). There were 60.0 internet users per 1,000 inhabitants in 2010.

Territory and Population

The mainland part of Equatorial Guinea is bounded in the north by Cameroon, east and south by Gabon, and west by the Gulf of Guinea, in which lie the islands of Bioko (called Macías Nguema from 1973 to 1979 and before that Fernando Pó) and Annobón (called Pagalu from 1973 to 1979). The total area is 28,051 km2 (10,831 sq. miles). Although the population at the last census in 2015 was provisionally given as 1,222,442, the United Nations does not consider this to be an accurate figure. In 2011, 39.9% of the population were urban. The seven provinces are grouped into two regions—Continental (C), chief town Bata; and Insular (I), chief town Malabo. In 2014 the capital, Malabo, had an estimated population of 145,000. The main ethnic group on the mainland is the Fang, which comprises 85% of the total population; there are several minority groups along the coast and adjacent islets. The official languages are French, Portuguese and Spanish.


The tourist industry is undeveloped and the tourism infrastructure is almost non-existent.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Limited 2019

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