República del Ecuador (Republic of Ecuador)
Reference work entry


  • Capital: Quito

  • Population estimate, 2015: 16.14 m.

  • GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 10,605

  • HDI/world rank, 2014: 0.732/88

  • Internet domain extension: .ec

Civil Aviation

The Ecuadorian flag carrier is Tame. There are international airports at Quito (Mariscal Sucre) and Guayaquil (José Joaquín de Olmedo). In 2009 Quito handled 4,746,292 passengers and 143,767 tonnes of freight, and Guayaquil handled 3,382,554 passengers and 55,605 tonnes of freight.


The climate varies from equatorial, through warm temperate to mountain conditions, according to altitude, which affects temperatures and rainfall. In coastal areas, the dry season is from May to Dec., but only from June to Sept. in mountainous parts, where temperatures may be 20 °F colder than on the coast. Quito, Jan. 59 °F (15 °C), July 58 °F (14.4 °C). Annual rainfall 44″ (1,115 mm). Guayaquil, Jan. 79 °F (26.1 °C), July 75 °F (23.9 °C). Annual rainfall 39″ (986 mm).

Constitution and Government

An executive President and a Vice-President...

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Limited 2019

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