République du Tchad (Republic of Chad)
Reference work entry


  • Capital: N’Djaména

  • Population estimate, 2015: 14.04 m.

  • GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 2,085

  • HDI/world rank, 2014: 0.392/185

  • Internet domain extension: .td

Civil Aviation

There is an international airport at N’Djaména, from which there were direct flights in 2010 to Abidjan, Addis Ababa, Cotonou, Douala, Johannesburg, Ouagadougou, Paris and Tripoli. There were 5,286 aircraft movements in 2011.


A tropical climate, with adequate rainfall in the south, though Nov. to April are virtually rainless months. Further north, desert conditions prevail. N’Djaména, Jan. 75 °F (23.9 °C), July 82 °F (27.8 °C). Annual rainfall 30″ (744 mm).

Constitution and Government

After overthrowing the regime of Hissène Habré, Idriss Déby proclaimed himself President and was sworn in on 4 March 1991. At a referendum on 31 March 1996 a new constitution was approved by 63.5% of votes cast. It defines Chad as a unitary state. The head of state is the President, elected by universal suffrage. On 26 May 2004 the National Assembly passed an amendment scrapping the two-term limit on the presidency, replacing it with an age limit of 70. The amendment was approved by referendum in June 2005. The National Assembly has 188 members, elected for a 4-year term.


The unit of currency is the franc CFA (XAF) with a parity of 655.957 francs CFA to one euro.


There are seven military regions. Total armed forces personnel numbered 25,350 in 2011, including republican guards. Defence expenditure totalled an estimated US$202 m. in 2012 (approximately US$18 per capita), representing around 2% of GDP.


In 2011 mining contributed 29.7% to GDP; followed by trade and hotels, 17.9%; agriculture, 15.8%; finance and real estate, 12.3%; public administration and defence, 8.1%.


The labour force in 2013 was 4,874,000 (3,415,000 in 2003). 71.9% of the population aged 15–64 was economically active in 2013. In the same year 7.1% of the population was unemployed.


There are no daily newspapers; there were five non-dailies in 2008, including the government-owned Info-Tchad. Combined circulation was 4,000.


The northern and central parts of the country are predominantly Muslim. There were an estimated 6.21 m. Muslims (both Sunnis and Shias) and 4.56 m. Christians (more Catholics than Protestants) in 2010 according to the Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life. Most of the remainder of the population is religiously unaffiliated, with some followers of folk religions.


In 2006 there were around 40,000 km of roads. 18,900 passenger cars were in use in 2006, plus 3,300 buses and coaches, 35,400 lorries and vans, and 63,000 motorcycles and mopeds. In 2007 there were 840 deaths in road accidents.

Social Statistics

2008 estimates: births, 499,000; deaths, 182,000. Rates, 2008 estimates (per 1,000 population): births, 45.7; deaths, 16.7. Chad has one of the youngest populations of any country, with 73% of the population under the age of 30% and 45% under 15. Annual rate of growth, 2000–08, 3.3%. Expectation of life in 2013 was 50.3 years among males and 52.1 among females. Infant mortality, 2010 (per 1,000 live births), 99. Fertility rate, 2008, 6.2 children per woman.


There were 51,200 fixed telephone lines in 2010 (4.6 per 1,000 inhabitants). Mobile phone subscribers numbered 2.61 m. in 2010. There were 17.0 internet users per 1,000 inhabitants in 2010. Fixed internet subscriptions totalled 4,600 in 2009 (0.4 per 1,000 inhabitants).

Territory and Population

Chad is bounded in the west by Cameroon, Nigeria and Niger, north by Libya, east by Sudan and south by the Central African Republic. Area, 1,284,000 km2. The population at the 2009 census was 11,039,873. About half the population lives in the southernmost 20% of the country’s territory. Whereas in the south of the country most people are settled, in the north, east and centre people are generally nomadic or semi-nomadic. The capital is N’Djaména with 951,458 inhabitants (2009 census), other large towns being (2009 census figures) Moundou (137,251), Abéché (97,963) and Sarh (97,224). Following administrative reforms of 2002 and 2008, Chad’s 14 prefectures were divided into 22 regions, including the City of N’Djaména (which is a commune governed by a special statute). The official languages are French and Arabic, but more than 100 different languages and dialects are spoken.


In 2009, 31,000 non-resident tourists (including 16,000 from Europe) stayed in hotels or similar accommodation.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Limited 2019

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