Principat d’Andorra (Principality of Andorra)
Reference work entry


  • Capital: Andorra la Vella

  • Population estimate, 2015: 70,000

  • GNI per capita, 2014: (PPP$) 43,978

  • HDI/world rank, 2014: 0.845/34

  • Internet domain extension: .ad

Civil Aviation

The nearest airport is Seo de Urgel, over the border in Spain 12 km to the south of Andorra.


Escaldes-Engordany, Jan. 35.8 °F (2.1 °C), July 65.8 °F (18.8 °C). Annual rainfall 34.9″ (886 mm).

Constitution and Government

The joint heads of state are the co-princes-the President of the French Republic and the Bishop of Urgel. A new democratic constitution was approved by 74.2% of votes cast at a referendum on 14 March 1993. The electorate was 9,123; turnout was 75.7%. The new constitution, which came into force on 4 May 1993, makes the co-princes a single constitutional monarch and provides for a parliament, the unicameral General Council of the Valleys, with 28 members, two from each of the seven parishes and 14 elected by proportional representation from the single national constituency, for 4 years. In 1982 an Executive Council was appointed and legislative and executive powers were separated. The General Council elects the President of the Executive Council, who is the head of the government. There is a Constitutional Court of four members who hold office for 8-year terms, renewable once.


Since 1 Jan. 2002 Andorra has been using the euro (EUR).


Only 1% of the workforce is employed in agriculture, the rest in tourism, commerce, services and light industry. Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars and furniture.


In 2008 there were three daily newspapers with a combined circulation of about 32,000. Diari d’Andorra and El Periodic d’Andorra are paid-for, while Bondia is free. L’Esportiu, a daily Catalan-language sports paper, is included in Diari d’Andorra. In the 2013 World Press Freedom Index compiled by Reporters Without Borders, Andorra was ranked fifth out of 179 countries.


The Roman Catholic is the established church, but the 1993 constitution guarantees religious liberty. In 2011 around 90% of the population were Catholics.


There were 76,616 motor vehicles in 2012 including 52,038 private cars and 13,154 motorcycles and mopeds. A total of 4,111,528 vehicles entered the country in 2012 (4,178,116 in 2011).

Social Statistics

Births in 2006 numbered 843 (10.4 per 1,000 inhabitants) and deaths 260 (3.2). Life expectancy (2006): males, 78 years; females, 85 years. Annual population growth rate, 2000–05, 3.5%. Fertility rate, 2008, 1.3 births per woman (one of the lowest rates in the world). Infant mortality in 2010 was three per 1,000 live births.


In 2010 there were 38,171 landline telephone subscriptions, equivalent to 449.8 per 1,000 inhabitants. There were 65,500 mobile phone subscriptions in 2010 (771.8 per 1,000 inhabitants). Andorra had 785.3 internet users per 1,000 inhabitants in 2009. Fixed internet subscriptions totalled 32,000 in 2009 (382.6 per 1,000 inhabitants).

Territory and Population

The co-principality of Andorra is situated in the eastern Pyrenees on the French-Spanish border. The country is mountainous and has an average altitude of 1,996 m. Area, 464 km2. In lieu of a census, a register of population is kept. The estimated population at 31 Dec. 2013 was 76,098; density, 164 per km2. In 2010, 88% of the population lived in urban areas. The chief towns are Andorra la Vella, the capital (population, 22,546 in 2013) and Escaldes-Engordany (13,859); other towns are Encamp, Sant Julià de Lòria and La Massana. In 2010, 38.8% of the residential population were Andorran, 31.4% Spanish, 15.4% Portuguese and 6.0% French. Catalan is the official language, but Spanish and French are widely spoken.


Tourism is the main industry, accounting for 80% of GDP. In 2010 there were 1,808,000 international tourist arrivals (excluding same-day visitors).

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Limited 2019

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