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Quebec City, Canada

Reference work entry

Introduction

French-speaking Quebec is located on the confluence of the St Lawrence and Saint-Charles rivers, to the north east of Montreal.

A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1985, Vieux-Quebec is the only walled city in North America, part of a military inheritance which led to Winston Churchill to dub the city ‘the Gibraltar of North America’.

History

It was at Quebec that Samuel de Champlain established the first permanent European settlement in Canada in 1608. It developed as a fur-trading post, although the site of the city was first visited by a European in 1535, when French explorer Jacques Cartier came across the Huron Indian village of Stadacona. To aid the defence of the settlement, it was moved to the cliff-top in 1620 when the Fort St-Louis was built on the present site of the Château Frontenac, the gothic hotel which dominates the city.

Fighting continued between the British and French in North America throughout the seventeenth century with the British capturing Quebec...

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© Springer Nature Limited 2019

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