Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

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Newcastle is the principal city of the Tyne and Wear region in northern England. Formerly a major industrial centre, it suffered severe economic decline in the twentieth century. Boosted by the growth of the service sector in recent years, it is one of the most important cultural centres in the north of England.


Newcastle’s history began with the Roman occupation of Britain. In the western suburbs of Newcastle upon Tyne was the site of a fort on Hadrian’s Wall called Condercum. Closer to the modern day centre of the city there was a second fort, less impressive than Condercum but strategically important for guarding the Roman bridge across the river.

Robert Curthose, the eldest son of William the Conqueror, built a castle on the site of the Roman fort, which became known as Newcastle. The city was of military importance because of its location near the eastern border with Scotland and the town grew steadily within the medieval walls that enclosed the city from...

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