Lviv (Lvov; Lwów; Lemberg), Ukraine

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Lviv is the main city of Lviv oblast in western Ukraine. Its importance on Baltic–Black Sea trade routes made it a victim of dynastic disputes over the centuries. It is now a major industrial and transport hub.


Galician King Danylo Halytsky established a fortress and named it in honour of his son Lev in the mid-thirteenth century. As the leading town of the Galicia region, Lev designated it his capital. Stormed and looted by the Poles under King Casimir in 1340, it was annexed to the Polish and Hungarian Kingdoms in 1349 and incorporated into Poland in 1387.

Briefly under the control of the Cossacks (1648) and the Swedes (1704), it came to Austria with the first partition of Poland in 1772. It underwent major urban expansion over the next century with the railway opening in the 1860s. Captured by Russia in the Great War, in 1918 Lviv became capital of the Western Ukrainian People’s Republic until Poles re-took control the following year.

In 1939 it was occupied by...

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