Skip to main content

Glide: High Vowel Alternation at the Syntax–Phonology Interface

  • Reference work entry
  • First Online:
The Handbook of Berber Linguistics

Abstract

Berber languages present a wealth of intricate phonological alternations involving glides and high vowels, some of which still resist standard phonological analyses. Glides typically appear in the immediate vicinity of a vowel, in complementary distribution with the corresponding high vowels: for example, Tashlhiyt Berber gru “pick up” vs. agraw “assembly,” bri “crush” vs. abraj “crushed seeds.” Based on this kind of observations, standard theories analyze glides and high vowels as phonetic reflexes of the same underlying segments. The problem arises with the corresponding dative forms grujas “pick to him” and brijas “crush seeds to him.” Followed by a vowel-initial morpheme –as, U and I should normally surface as glides, leading to *grwas and *brjas. The key to understanding this paradox lies, we argue, in the morpho-syntactic structure of dative formations. We show that vP corresponds to a phase where U and I are spelled-out as high vowels before the enclitic –as is added. The resulting hiatus is then resolved by means of j-epenthesis, leading to grujas and brijas. External evidence is drawn from emphasis spread. We show that the projections of category-forming heads, including vP and nP, are the maximal domain of emphasis spread in Tashlhiyt Berber.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Institutional subscriptions

References

  • Achab K (2012) Internal structure of verb meaning: a study of verbs in Tamazight (Berber). Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne

    Google Scholar 

  • Acquaviva P (2008) Lexical plurals: a morphosemantic approach. Oxford University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  • Appelgate J (1970) The Berber Languages. In: Sebeok TA, Ferguson CA, Hodge CT, Paper H, Krueger JR, Schram GM (eds) Current trends in linguistics 6: linguistics in south West Asia and North Africa. Mouton, Berlin, pp 586–661

    Google Scholar 

  • Basset A (1952) La langue berbère. In: Handbook of African language 1. Oxford University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  • Belkadi A (2017) Pronominal and clitics systems in Taqbaylit Berber. Pro Quest LLC, Ann Arbor

    Google Scholar 

  • Bensoukas K (1994) Tashlhit agentive nouns: an optimality-theoretic approach. D.E.S thesis, Mohammed V University, Faculty of Letters, Rabat

    Google Scholar 

  • Bensoukas K (2001) Stem forms in non-templatic morphology of Berber. Doctorat d’Etat thesis, Mohammed V University, Rabat

    Google Scholar 

  • Bermúdez-Otero R (2011) Cyclicity. In: van Oostendorp M, Ewen C, Hume E, Rice K (eds) The Blackwell companion to phonology. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, pp 2019–2048

    Google Scholar 

  • Blevins J (1995) The syllable in phonological theory. In: Goldsmith J (ed) The handbook of phonological theory. Blackwell, Hoboken, pp 206–244

    Google Scholar 

  • Bosch A (2011) Syllable-internal structure. In: van Oostendorp M, Ewen C, Hume E, Rice K (eds) The Blackwell companion to phonology. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, pp 781–798

    Google Scholar 

  • Boukhris F, Boumalk A, El Moujahid E, Souifi H (2008) La nouvelle grammaire de l’amazighe. Publications de l’Institut Royal de la Culture Amazighe, Rabat

    Google Scholar 

  • Boukous A (1979) La formation du glide en Tamazight (dialecte tachelhit). Traces 2:3–51

    Google Scholar 

  • Boukous A (1987) Phonotactique et domaines prosodiques en berbère. PhD dissertation, University Paris 8

    Google Scholar 

  • Boukous A (1990) Pharyngalisation et domaines prosodiques en berbère. In: Langue et Littérature. Publications de la Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines, Sorbonne, pp 153–176

    Google Scholar 

  • Boukous A (2009) Phonologie de l’amazighe. Publications de l’IRCAM, Paris

    Google Scholar 

  • Chomsky N (2001) Derivation by phase. In: Kenstowicz M (ed) Ken Hale: a life in language. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 1–52

    Google Scholar 

  • Chomsky N (2008) On phases. Curr Stud Linguist Ser 45:133

    Google Scholar 

  • Chomsky N, Halle M (1968) The sound pattern of English. Harper & Row Publishers, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Clements GN (1990) The role of the sonority cycle in core syllabification. In: Kingston J, Beckman ME (eds) Papers in laboratory phonology I: between the grammar and physics of speech. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 283–333

    Google Scholar 

  • Clements G, Keyser J (1983) CV phonology: a generative theory of the syllable. MIT Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Coleman J (1996) Declarative syllabification in Tashlhiyt Berber. In: Durand J, Laks B (eds) Current trends in phonology: models and methods. European Studies Research Institute, University of Salford, Salford, pp 177–218

    Google Scholar 

  • Coleman J (2001) The phonetics and phonology of Tashlhiyt Berber syllabic consonants. Trans Philol Soc 99:29–64

    Google Scholar 

  • D’Alessandro R, Scheer T (2015) Modular PIC. Linguist Inq 46(4):593–624

    Google Scholar 

  • Dell F, Elmedlaoui M (1985) Syllabic consonants and syllabification in Imdlawn Tashlhiyt Berber. J Afr Lang Linguist 7:105–130

    Google Scholar 

  • Dell F, Elmedlaoui M (2002) Syllables in Tashlhiyt Berber and in Moroccan Arabic. Kluwer, Amsterdan

    Google Scholar 

  • Destaing E (1920) Etude sur le dialecte berbère des Ait Seghrouchen. Editions Ernest Leroux, Paris

    Google Scholar 

  • El Moujahid E (1979) Présentation des phonèmes de la langue tamazight, la tachelhiyt d’Igherm Souss. Traces 2:52–78

    Google Scholar 

  • El Moujahid E (1997) Grammaire générative du berbère, morphologie et syntaxe du nom en tachelhit. Publications de la Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines, Sorbonne

    Google Scholar 

  • Elmedlaoui M (1985) Le parler berbère chleuh d’Imdlawn Maroc: Segments et syllabation. Thèse de Doctorat, Université Paris 8

    Google Scholar 

  • Elmedlaoui M (1995) Aspects des représentations phonologiques dans certaines langues chamito-sémitiques. Université Mohammed V, Publications de la Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines, Rabat

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldsmith J (2011) Syllables. In: Goldsmith J, Riggle J, Yu A (eds) The handbook of phonological theory, 2nd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, pp 162–196

    Google Scholar 

  • Guerssel M (1986) Glides in Berber and syllabicity. Linguist Inq 17(1):1–12

    Google Scholar 

  • Iazzi E (2018) Norme et variations en amazighe marocain (aspects morphophonologiques). Doctorat d’Etat thesis, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaye J, Lowenstamm J (1984) De la syllabicité. In: Dell F, Hirst D, Vergnaud JR (eds) Forme Sonore du Langage: Structure des Représentations en Phonologie. Hermann, Paris, pp 123–159

    Google Scholar 

  • Kiparsky P (1976) Abstractness, opacity, and global rules. In: Koutsoudas A (ed) The application and ordering of grammatical rules. Mouton, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  • Kiparsky P (1982) From cyclic to lexical phonology. In: van der Hulst H, Smith N (eds) The structure of phonological representations, vol I. Foris, Berlin, pp 131–175

    Google Scholar 

  • Kossmann M, Stroomer H (1997) Berber phonology. In: Kaye AS (ed) Phonologies of Asia and Africa 2. Eisenbrauns, Ann Arbor, pp 461–475

    Google Scholar 

  • Kramer R (2012) A split analysis of plurality: evidence from Amharic. In: Arnett N, Bennet R (eds) The proceedings of WCCFL, vol 30. Cascadilla, Somerville, pp 226–236

    Google Scholar 

  • Kratzer A, Selkirk E (2007) Phase theory and prosodic spellout: the case of verbs. Linguist Rev 24(2–3):93–135

    Google Scholar 

  • Lahrouchi M (2001) Aspects morpho-phonologiques de la dérivation verbale en berbère tachelhit. Thèse de Doctorat, Université Paris 7

    Google Scholar 

  • Lahrouchi M (2010) On the internal structure of Tashlhiyt Berber triconsonantal roots. Linguist Inq 41(2):255–285

    Google Scholar 

  • Lahrouchi M (2013) A propos de I et de U en berbère: de la phonologie, de la morphologie et des phases. In: Tifrit A (ed) Phonologie, Morphologie et Syntaxe. Presses Universitaires de Rennes, Rennes, pp 21–30

    Google Scholar 

  • Lahrouchi M (2018) Syllable structure and vowel-zero alternations in Moroccan Arabic and Berber. In: Agwuele A, Bodomo A (eds) The Routledge handbook of African linguistics. Routledge, London, pp 168–180

    Google Scholar 

  • Lahrouchi M, Kern S (2018) From babbling to first words in Tashlhiyt language acquisition: a longitudinal two-case study. Can J Linguist 63(4):493–526

    Google Scholar 

  • Lahrouchi M, Ridouane R (2016) On diminutives and plurals in Moroccan Arabic. Morphology 26(3):453–475

    Google Scholar 

  • Lahrouchi M, Ségéral P (2010) Peripheral vowels in Tashlhiyt Berber are phonologically long: evidence from Tagnawt. Brill Ann Afroasiat Lang Linguist 2:202–212

    Google Scholar 

  • Lasri A (1991) Aspects de la phonologie non-linéaire du parler berbère chleuh de Tidli. Thèse de Doctorat, Université Paris III

    Google Scholar 

  • Lehiste I (1965) Juncture. In: Zwirner E, Bethge W (eds) Proceedings of the fifth international congress of phonetic sciences. Karger, Bassel, pp 172–200

    Google Scholar 

  • Levi S (2011) Glides. In: van Oostendorp M, Ewen C, Hume E, Rice K (eds) The Blackwell companion to phonology, vol I. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, pp 341–366

    Google Scholar 

  • Levin J (1985) A metrical theory of syllabicity. PhD dissertation, MIT

    Google Scholar 

  • Lowenstamm J (2008) On little n, √, and types of nouns. In: Hartmann J, Hegedüs V, van Riemsdijk H (eds) Sounds of silence: empty elements in syntax and phonology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 105–144

    Google Scholar 

  • Marantz A (2001) Words. Ms. MIT, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Marantz A (2007) Phases and words. In: Choe S-H (ed) Phases in the theory of grammar. Dong In, Seoul, pp 191–222

    Google Scholar 

  • Marvin T (2002) Topics in the stress and syntax of words. PhD dissertation, MIT

    Google Scholar 

  • Marvin T (2013) Is word structure relevant for stress assignment. In: Matushansky O, Marantz A (eds) Distributed morphology today: morphemes for Morris Halle. The MIT Press, Cambridge (Mass), London, pp 79–93

    Google Scholar 

  • Mascaró J (1976) Catalan phonology and the phonological cycle. PhD dissertation, MIT

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller T (2018) Polysynthesis at the phonology-syntax Interface: a case study of Kiowa and Saulteaux Ojibwe. PhD dissertation, University of Delaware

    Google Scholar 

  • Mohanan PK (1982) Lexical phonology. PhD dissertation, MIT

    Google Scholar 

  • Newell H, Piggott G (2014) Interactions at the syntax-phonology interface: evidence from Ojibwe. Lingua 150:332–362

    Google Scholar 

  • Omari N (2012) Clitic placement in Amazigh. Asinag 7:185–200

    Google Scholar 

  • Ouali H (2005) Verb movement and object pronominal clitic distribution in Berber. Ms., The University of Michigan

    Google Scholar 

  • Ouali H (2011) Agreement, pronominal clitics and negation in Tamazight Berber. Continuum International Publishing Group, London/New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Ouhalla J (1988) The syntax of head movement: a study of Berber. PhD dissertation, University College London

    Google Scholar 

  • Padgett J (2008) Glides, vowels and features. Lingua 118:1937–1955

    Google Scholar 

  • Pater J (2010) Morpheme-specific phonology: constraint indexation and inconsistency resolution. In: Parker S (ed) Phonological argumentation: essays on evidence and motivation. Equinox, Sheffield, pp 123–154

    Google Scholar 

  • Pike K, Pike E (1947) Immediate constituents of Mazateco syllables. Int J Am Linguist 13:78–91

    Google Scholar 

  • Puech G, Louali N (1999) Syllabification in Berber: the case of Tashlhiyt. In: Ohala J (ed) Proceedings of the 14th international congress of phonetic sciences. University of California Press, San Francisco, pp 747–750

    Google Scholar 

  • Ridouane R (2003) Suites de consonnes en berbère: phonétique et phonologie. Thèse de Doctorat, Université Paris 3-Sorbonne Nouvelle

    Google Scholar 

  • Ridouane R (2008) Syllables without vowels: phonetic and phonological evidence from Tashlhiyt Berber. Phonology 25:321–359

    Google Scholar 

  • Ridouane R (2009) Pharyngealization and pharyngeal Tashlhiyt in Berber: a descriptive and comparative study. International Workshop on Pharyngeal and Pharyngealization, Newcastle

    Google Scholar 

  • Ridouane R (2014) Tashlhiyt Berber. J Int Phon Assoc 44:207–221

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosenthal S (1994) Vowel-glide alternation in a theory of constraint interaction. PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts

    Google Scholar 

  • Samuels B (2010) Phonological derivation by phase: evidence from Basque. Univ Penn Work Pap Linguist 16:166–175

    Google Scholar 

  • Scheer T (2008) Why the prosodic hierarchy is a diacritic and why the interface must be direct. In: Hartmann J, Hegedüs V, van Riemsdijk H (eds) Sound of silence: empty elements in syntax and phonology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 146–192

    Google Scholar 

  • Scheer T (2011) A guide to morphosyntax-phonology interface theory. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  • Scheer T (2015) Précis de structure syllabique. ENS Editions, Lyon

    Google Scholar 

  • Selkirk E (1982) Syllables. In: van der Hulst H, Smith N (eds) The structure of phonological representations. Foris, Dordrecht, pp 337–383

    Google Scholar 

  • Selkirk E (1984) On the major class features and syllable theory. In: Aronoff M, Oehrle RT (eds) Language sound structures. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 107–136

    Google Scholar 

  • Soutsane K (2008) Syllabification and phonological rule application in Tashlhiyt Berber. PhD dissertation, Durham University

    Google Scholar 

  • Trager G (1962) Some thoughts on juncture. Stud Linguist 16(1):11–22

    Google Scholar 

  • Yeou M (1997) Locus equations and the degree of coarticulation of Arabic consonants. Phonetica 54(3–4):187–202

    Google Scholar 

  • Zeroual C (2000) Propos controversés sur la phonétique et la phonologie de l’arabe marocain. Thèse de doctorat, Université Paris 8

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohamed Lahrouchi .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2024 Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this entry

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this entry

Lahrouchi, M., Ridouane, R. (2024). Glide: High Vowel Alternation at the Syntax–Phonology Interface. In: Korangy, A., Bensoukas, K. (eds) The Handbook of Berber Linguistics. Springer Handbooks in Languages and Linguistics. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-5690-6_4

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics