# Mathematics Education as a Matter of Achievement

**DOI:**https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-588-4_521

## Introduction

Achievement in school mathematics is defined in relation to the goals of mathematics education, which are stated in curriculum frameworks, debated in research, or assumed by educational policy actors. Assessment of performance creates both, criteria for what it means to be successful in mathematics and students who achieve below and above a minimum standard or at a range of levels. Achievement (here used synonymously with academic performance or attainment), as an outcome of assessments after conclusion of an instructional unit, is commonly expressed in the form of course grades or scores on school examinations and other achievement tests. In school mathematics it appears comparatively easy to create large achievement differences between individuals. Because mathematics education has a long-standing function as a “gatekeeper” for entering a range of professions and higher education, there is a comparatively high economic value attached to good grades or test scores. In...

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