Marketization of European Higher Education Through Policy
Until the last decades of the twentieth century, “higher education” and “innovation policy” were two publicly financed areas with few organized governmental policy connections. The so-called science and innovation policy regime (Elzinga 2004) that began in the 1990s marked a shift that encouraged a “forced marriage” between these domains. This section focuses on the theoretical background of the marketization of higher education and research and the newly identified double role of the university as provider of two distinct products: research results that can be commercialized and transformed into innovations, on the one hand, and of undergraduate and graduate students trained to be useful in business, industry, and society, on the other. The section concludes with a summary of the consequences of marketization for higher education and research.
From Indirect to Direct Utilization of Higher Education and...
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