Fairness in Educational Assessment
Fairness is a moral virtue and a fundamental quality in educational assessment. Understanding of fairness in educational assessment has evolved with developments in learning theory and measurement, and it has increasingly been recognized as a necessary quality for inclusivity in education. Fairness is closely related to, but distinct from, the societal concepts of equality, equity, and justice and the measurement concepts of bias, reliability, and validity. In practice, three conditions contribute to fairer educational assessment: opportunity to learn, a constructive environment, and evaluative thinking. Multiple strategies, revolving around the principle of transparency and the provision of opportunity to demonstrate learning, should be used to ensure fairer educational assessment for diverse learners.
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