Ideology is a very wide and polysemous concept that can have different definitions depending on the theoretical frame of reference. Generally, we speak of an ideological phenomenon when there is a conditioning of action of one or more individuals by a social power on the basis of objectives and criteria which are not critical and rational but rather in compliance with the objective of power domination.
Studies on ideology got under way in the 1920s and became widespread in the 1960s by means of the spread of Marxism. In the 1980s and 1990s, it was taken up again in the anthropological field with Geertz’s research and in the field of political science with Freeden’s work.
One of the milestones in this field was the volume Ideology and Utopia by Karl Mannheim (1936). This work, even before having the merit of giving a new definition of the concept of ideology in opposition to the concept of utopia, delineated a genealogy of the concept of ideology for the first time...
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