Open Educational Resources

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-532-7_218-1

Synonyms

Introduction

For many in education, the term Open Educational Resources or OER probably translates functionally as “free resources on the Internet.” But this shorthand provides only a partial definition which obscures some of the key features and questions of interest that drive the “OER movement,” as the community of practitioners and scholars who are engaged with OER are often described. For example, how can educational resources be “free”? What is the significance of their “openness”? How do they get on the Internet? Also, what should we make of the fact that there is a “prehistory” of openness in education which predates current digital versions?

Along with their parent category, Open Education, OER belong to a pantheon of technology-enabled “opening” movements, including Open Source Software and Open Access that act as drivers for openness, collaboration,...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

References

  1. Amiel, T., & Soares, T. C. (2016). Identifying tensions in the use of open licenses in OER repositories. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(3), 122–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrade, A., Caine, A., & Carneiro, R. (2011). Beyond OER: Shifting focus to open educational practices: OPAL report 2011. Available at: http://duepublico.uni-duisburg-essen.de/servlets/DerivateServlet/Derivate-25907/OPALReport2011_Beyond_OER.pdf
  3. Atenas, J., Havemann, L., & Priego, E. (2014). Opening teaching landscapes: The importance of quality assurance in the delivery of open educational resources. Open Praxis, 6(1), 29–43. Available at: http://www.openpraxis.org/~openprax/index.php/OpenPraxis/article/view/81
  4. Browne, T., et al. (2010). The challenges of OER to Academic Practice. Journal of Interactive Media in Education JIME, 2010(Special Issue on Open Educational Resources), 1–15. Available at: http://jime.open.ac.uk/jime/article/viewArticle/2010-3/html
  5. Budapest Open Access Initiative. (2002). Read the Budapest open access initiative. Available at: http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read
  6. Caswell, T., et al. (2008). Open content and open educational resources: Enabling universal education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 9(1). Available at: http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/469/. Accessed 5 Mar 2016.
  7. Creative Commons. (2016). Frequently Asked Questions. Available at: https://creativecommons.org/faq/. Accessed 1 Sept 2016.
  8. Cronin, C. (2016). Open, networked and connected learning: Bridging the formal / informal learning divide in higher education. In Cranmer S, Dohn NB, de Laat M, Ryberg T, & Sime JA (Eds.), 10th International Conference on Networked Learning, 2016 (pp. 76–84). Available at: http://www.networkedlearningconference.org.uk/abstracts/pdf/S3_Paper2.pdf
  9. DeRosa, R. (2016). My open textbook: Pedagogy and practice. In Actualham. Available at: http://robinderosa.net/uncategorized/my-open-textbook-pedagogy-and-practice/. Accessed 1 Sept 2016.
  10. Ehlers, U.-D. (2011). From open educational resources to open educational practices. eLearning Papers, 23(23), 1–8. Available at: http://www.elearningeuropa.info/files/media/media25231.pdf. Accessed 6 Mar 2016.
  11. Havemann, L., Stroud, J., & Atenas, J. (2014). Breaking down barriers: Open educational practices as an emerging academic literacy. In Connected learning in an open world: academic practice and technology conference. University of Greenwich. Available at: http://eprints.bbk.ac.uk/10255/. Accessed 18 May 2015.
  12. Hendricks, C. (2015). Renewable assignments: Student work adding value to the world. Flexible Learning. Available at: http://flexible.learning.ubc.ca/news-events/renewable-assignments-student-work-adding-value-to-the-world/. Accessed 28 Feb 2016.
  13. McAuley, A., Stewart, B., Siemens, G., & Cormier, D. (2010). The MOOC model for digital practice. Massive Open Online Courses: digital ways of knowing and learning. Available at: www.elearnspace.org/Articles/MOOC_Final.pdf
  14. McGreal, R., (2004). Learning objects: A practical definition. Available at: http://auspace.athabascau.ca:8080/handle/2149/227. Accessed 4 June 2016.
  15. OECD. (2007). Giving knowledge for free: The emergence of open educational resources. Book, (p. 147). Available at: http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/givingknowledgeforfreetheemergenceofopeneducationalresources.htm. Accessed 6 Dec 2011.
  16. Peter, S., & Deimann, M. (2013). On the role of openness in education: A historical reconstruction. Open Praxis, 5(1), 7–14. Available at: http://www.openpraxis.org/index.php/OpenPraxis/article/view/23. Accessed 12 Oct 2015.
  17. Peters, M. A., Gietzen, G., & Ondercin, D. J. (2012). Knowledge socialism: Intellectual commons and openness in the university. In R. Barnett (Ed.), The future university: Ideas and possibilities (pp. 187–200). New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Pomerantz, J., & Peek, R. (2016). Fifty shades of open. First Monday, 21(5). Available at: http://www.ojphi.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/6360/5460. Accessed 23 May 2016.
  19. Rolfe, V. (2012). Open educational resources: Staff attitudes and awareness. Research in Learning Technology, 20. Available at: http://www.researchinlearningtechnology.net/index.php/rlt/article/view/14395/xml. Accessed 7 May 2014.
  20. Schuwer, R., Kreijns., K. & Vermeulen, M. (2014). Wikiwijs: An unexpected journey and the lessons learned towards OER. Open Praxis, 6(2), 91–102. Available at: http://www.openpraxis.org/~openprax/index.php/OpenPraxis/article/view/116. Accessed 29 Apr 2014.
  21. Smith, M. S., & Casserly, C. M. (2006). The promise of open educational resources. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 38(5), 37–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. UNESCO. (2002). Forum on the Impact of Open Courseware for Higher Education in Developing Countries: Final Report. Available at: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001285/128515e.pdf.
  23. Weller, M. (2010). Big and little OER. In Open Ed 2010 Proceedings. Available at: http://openaccess.uoc.edu/webapps/o2/handle/10609/4851. Accessed 14 Aug 2012.
  24. Wiley, D. (2009). Defining “Open.” In Iterating toward openness. Available at: http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/1123
  25. Wiley, D. Open Content Definition. Available at: https://www.opencontent.org/definition/
  26. Wiley, D. (2013). What is Open Pedagogy?. In Iterating toward openness. Available at: http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2975. Accessed 1 Sept 2016.
  27. Windle, R. J., Wharrad, H., McCormick, D., Laverty, H., & Taylor, M. G. (2010). Sharing and reuse in OER: Experiences gained from open reusable learning objects in health. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2010(1), 4. Available at: http://jime.open.ac.uk/articles/10.5334/2010-4/. Accessed 4 June 2016.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Birkbeck, University of LondonLondonUK